Generally organisation comprise if two groups of people, the employees i.e. the people who forms the greater part workman group and the management of the organisation i.e. Managing Directors who involves in the decision making in the organisation. Man in his natural form in 1934 always tries to gravitate towards his comfort zone unless some kind of force in applied to him. It is this force or situation that causes him desire to move out of his comfort zone in order to avert a negative consequence. This force of situation now becomes the motive for his working towards this set target (motivating factor).
According to Poku (1967:226) our lives are worked by our need, our desire and our preferences, so the way we live and what we achieve (within the limit of our ability of one particular circumstances) are the product of these feeling, therefore, people join organisation to satisfy these needs and desired. Motivation can be defined as the need, or fear that prompt an individual act. (Webster Encyclopaedic dictionary of the English Language 1991) motivation is the process that moves a person towards a goal. Wole Adewunmi also defines motivation as the inner stimulus that induces one to behave the way he does it is that thing that makes you do what you dove inner drive, it has to do with that inner state that energies, activates or moves and therefore directs behaviour towards goal.
Individuals form the employees in any banking industry, their behaviour and reaction towards various kinds of motivation must be borne in mind our effort is to find out the effect of those factors on higher productivity. This higher productivity is the ultimate desire of every profit making organisation especially the banks in general. The union bank plc also has its root in the above phenomena.
Man works basically on the two following reasons:
a.His primary motive is to obtain the resources to meet his physiological needs and support his family.
b.The secondary motive concern mans social needs which has wide ramification. He was to feel that he belongs, that he is accepted by his fellows, this is clearly associated with a desire for companionship. According to burling Hame in his seventeenth century book, he stated and I quote, “work is the resources of mans’ most basic satisfaction it is his social catalyst. The ultimate goal of man is to fulfil himself as a unique individual according to his own innate potential and within the limit of reality.
There are several incentives that could motivate people to work to their optimal level and when these variables are not there, their productivity will generally be affected. These therefore could lead to:
a.low level of production
b.poor quality of service
c.high rate of absenteeism and labour turnover.
d.Bad time keeping and general tax discipline on the other hand, if there are well package incentives such as:
Recognition of self-achievement, advertisement, promotion, good remuneration, and conducive working environment this will lead to greater productivity and less labour turnover. This study is therefore chosen to look at various theories of motivation, their influence on workers and extent they have gone in ensuring higher productivity in banking sectors.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON MOTIVATION
Since motivation influences productivity, supervisors need to understand what motivates employees to reach peak performance. It is not easy task to increase employees motivation because employees respond in different ways to their organisations practices. Motivation is the set of processes that moves a person towards a goal.
According to Glueck, motivation is the inner state that energises, channels and sustains human behaviours.
Huse and Badit defines motivation as the condition responsible for variations in the intensity, quality and direction of a going behaviour.
Borne/Erstrand sees motivation as “an explanatory concept, used to answer questions about both within the individual (the same person behaves different on two occasion, when the situation is identical) and between individuals.
Hull, viewed motivation as “stemming from physiologically based drives with social motive. Another writer explained that motivation is a process of creating organisation conditions and controlling the occupational environment in a manner that develops employees potentials and causes them in aligning employee and organisation interest so that behaviour result in achievement of employee wants simultaneously with the attainment of organisation objectives.
Robber .C. refers motivation as “the way, urges, aspirations, drives and need of human being directed or control or explain their behaviour, it may be described as keenness for a particular pattern of behaviour.
According to Dr. E.M. Nwabuisi “motivation is what direct behaviour towards satisfaction of some needs. Motivation is the state of condition of being induced to do something foundational, it involves needs that exist within the individual and incentives or goals.
Anlue sees motivation ad “Energizer, a stimulus, a need, a drive an urge, a goal or a desire, which is instrumental to human behaviour. In other words a motivator can be described as anything internal or external which triggers up human behaviour he further more, said that motivation may be (A) intrinsic and (B) extrinsic.
Intrinsic motivation can be described as the joy of doing something for example on academic, individual who drives joy and satisfaction from reading and learning always moves to the library due to the satisfaction it gives her, but a person who does something that is not his/her wish in other to please someone that pushes him/her to do it is extrinsic motivation.
Rommy Okoye perceived motivation as “An impress/issues that urges an organisaiton into activity. When a person puts up a behaviour, there are some forces from within which helps to energies him and direct him in his actions. This motivation acts to arouse, sustain and direct behaviour. The foreign postulations have explained the extremity in the behavioural tendencies of individuals when bastion is induced. It has shown that certain people are stirred into action as a result of influence that is applied on them, people are motivated into action as a result of nature deficiency in the general well bring of people, economically, socially, culturally and politically people who fall into each of this group experience problems which in other to induce them will enumerate from the base of motivation that will be enumerate from the base of motivation that will be applied the motivation. A worker suffers economic deficiency of limited means and unlimited wants therefore, some of this vital needs should be met to motivated him into high productivity.
An ambitious socialist wants a good social leader or someone who will put things in his own desired order or if possible himself, likewise a political conscious person who is influence by group political ideology manifestoes or monetary commendation to be incited into taking actions that will lep lift in well-being or satisfy his social orders different writers motivation can thus be summarised as follows.
A process, which incites an individual or a groups to action, a cause of inducement that influences the behavioural pattern of an individual or group. It is also a process that influences the sense of purpose of an individual or group. Further motivation in a condition or state, which activates and direct mans action or energise. Motivation has to do with why people refrain from doing things. A motivation is a need or achieving force with an individual, this process involves with choosing between alternative forms of actions in order to achieve time-desired end.
Basic model of behaviour
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