Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species

Abstract:

Ruminant livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats, and camels, possess a distinctive digestive system with complex microbiota communities critical for feed conversion and secondary metabolite production, including greenhouse gases. Yet, there is limited knowledge regarding the diversity of rumen microbes and metabolites benefiting livestock physiology, productivity, climate impact, and defense mechanisms across ruminant species. In this study, we utilized metataxonomics and metabolomics data from four evolutionarily distinct livestock species, which had fed on diverse plant materials like grass, shrubs, and acacia trees, to uncover the unique signature microbes and secondary metabolites. We established the presence of a distinctive anaerobic fungus called Oontomyces in camels, while cattle exhibited a higher prevalence of unique microbes like Psychrobacter, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Orpinomyces. Goats hosted Cleistothelebolus, and Liebetanzomyces was unique to sheep. Furthermore, we identified a set of conserved core microbes, including Prevotella, Rickenellaceae, Cladosporium, and Pecoramyces, present in all the ruminants, irrespective of host genetics and dietary composition. This underscores their indispensable role in maintaining crucial physiological functions. Regarding secondary metabolites, camel’s rumen is rich in organic acids, goat’s rumen is rich in alcohols and hydrocarbons, sheep’s rumen is rich in indoles, and cattle’s rumen is rich in sesquiterpenes. Additionally, linalool propionate and terpinolene were uniquely found in sheep rumen, while valencene was exclusive to cattle. This may suggest the existence of species-specific microbes and metabolites that require host rumen-microbes’ environment balance. These results have implications for manipulating the rumen environment to target specific microbes and secondary metabolite networks, thereby enhancing livestock productivity, resilience, reducing susceptibility to vectors, and environmentally preferred livestock husbandry. IMPORTANCERumen fermentation, which depends on feed components and rumen microbes, plays a crucial role in feed conversion and the production of various metabolites important for the physiological functions, health, and environmental smartness of ruminant livestock, in addition to providing food for humans. However, given the complexity and variation of the rumen ecosystem and feed of these various livestock species, combined with inter-individual differences between gut microbial communities, how they influence the rumen secondary metabolites remains elusive. Using metagenomics and metabolomics approaches, we show that each livestock species has a signature microbe(s) and secondary metabolites. These findings may contribute toward understanding the rumen ecosystem, microbiome and metabolite networks, which may provide a gateway to manipulating rumen ecosystem pathways toward making livestock production efficient, sustainable, and environmentally friendly.
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

O.Victor, O (2024). Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/multi-omics-analyses-reveal-rumen-microbes-and-secondary-metabolites-that-are-unique-to-livestock-species

MLA 8th

O.Victor, Omondi "Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species" Afribary. Afribary, 10 Mar. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/multi-omics-analyses-reveal-rumen-microbes-and-secondary-metabolites-that-are-unique-to-livestock-species. Accessed 25 May. 2024.

MLA7

O.Victor, Omondi . "Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species". Afribary, Afribary, 10 Mar. 2024. Web. 25 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/multi-omics-analyses-reveal-rumen-microbes-and-secondary-metabolites-that-are-unique-to-livestock-species >.

Chicago

O.Victor, Omondi . "Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 25, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/multi-omics-analyses-reveal-rumen-microbes-and-secondary-metabolites-that-are-unique-to-livestock-species