Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases

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The basic idea of healthcare facilities which is to make people well is on the verge of being defeated as a result of patients contracting infections while in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infections are infections acquired by patients or healthcare workers while they are in healthcare facilities, including, hospitals, dental offices, nursing homes and doctors’ waiting rooms. Infectious diseases are diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi that can be spread directly or indirectly from one person to another. Some common infectious nosocomial diseases include diarrhoea, gastroenteritis, Ebola virus disease, Group A Streptococcal infections, etc. The four major types of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infection, surgical site infection, respiratory tract infection and blood stream infection. These infections can be caused by agents such as staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, clostridium difficile, etc. Infectious diseases undergo five main stages which are incubation period, prodromal period, illnss, decline and convalescence. Nosocomial infections act as one of the factors responsible for the spread of infectious diseases through direct contact with infected individuals in the healthcare setting or indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or invasive devices. The sources are grouped into endogenous and exogenous. Prevention is through hand hygiene, isolation, vaccination of staff, use of PPE, etc. Optimal use of antimicrobials, de-escalation process, removal of catheters and healthy diets are ways of treating nosocomial infections. It is very important to note that the most important factor in the fight against potentially fatal infections is ensuring that antibiotics are used appropriately through controlled prescribing and policies.



Title page------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

Approval page------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii

Dedication----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii

Acknowledgements------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ iv

Table of contents--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v

List of figures------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vii

List of tables-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- viii

Abstract--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ix


Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.1 Nosocomial Infection----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

1.2 Infectious Diseases-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3


Infectious Nosocomial Diseases---------------------------------------------------------------- 4

2.1 Types of Nosocomial Infections---------------------------------------------------------------- 5

2.2 Agents of Nosocomial Infections--------------------------------------------------------------- 9

2.3 Stages of Infectious Diseases------------------------------------------------------------------- 12


Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases----------------- 14

3.1 Factors Influencing Nosocomial Infections--------------------------------------------------- 15

3.2 Sources of Nosocomial Infections------------------------------------------------------------- 15

3.3 Causes of Nosocomial Infections-------------------------------------------------------------- 17


Prevention of Nosocomial Infections--------------------------------------------------------- 18

4.1 Control of Nosocomial Infections------------------------------------------------------------- 22

4.2 Treatments of Nosocomial Infections--------------------------------------------------------- 24

CONCLUSION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26

REFERENCES---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

                                                      LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

Figure 2----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

Figure 3----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16

Figure 4----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20


Table 1---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

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Onyishi, C. (2019). Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Onyishi, Chioma "Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases" Afribary. Afribary, 03 Aug. 2019, Accessed 30 Mar. 2023.


Onyishi, Chioma . "Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases". Afribary, Afribary, 03 Aug. 2019. Web. 30 Mar. 2023. < >.


Onyishi, Chioma . "Nosocomial Infections as a Factor in the Spread of Infectious Diseases" Afribary (2019). Accessed March 30, 2023.