ABSTRACT Background: Babesia/Theileria species are intra-erythrocytic protozoa of the phylum apicomplexa. The merozoite stage of Babesia/Theileria have diagnostic significance and are found as intracellular inclusions of infected red blood cells. The trophozoite stages appear as ring forms which measure about 1.0 to 5.0µm. These parasites are transmitted by hard ticks and can cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis/theileriosis. Human babesiosis/theileriosis are usually asymptomatic except in immuno-compromised people in whom symptoms present like malaria, yet treatment for these diseases can be different. These similarities can increase the possibility of misdiagnosing a patient with malaria when he or she is really suffering from babesiosis/theileriosis or vice versa leading to an inappropriate treatment choice. Ghana is a malaria endemic country; thus, general malaise is usually treated as malaria. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Babesia/Theileria species in cattle, dogs and humans at the Middle Belt of Ghana. Methodology: A cross-sectional study involving humans, sick dogs and cattle was undertaken at communities within the Techiman and Kintampo municipalities. Microscopy (Giemsa stained thin smears), serology (RDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were techniques employed in the study. Whole blood samples were taken from sick cattle, sick dogs and human malaria positive cases (that were negative for rapid diagnostic test). Blood samples of all study subjects were microscopically screened to suspect Babesia/Theileria infection. Suspected samples were subsequently subjected to PCR amplification and sequenced for specific piroplasm and strain identification. Results: Out of seventy-one (71) sick dogs, 30 (42.3%) were suspected by microscopy whiles 14 out of the suspected cases (14/30, 46.7%) were amplified by PCR. For sick cattle, 33 (15.9%) were suspected out of the two hundred and seven (207), out of which 20 (20/33, 60.6%) were amplified and subsequently sequenced. The piroplasm identified in the cattle after sequencing was Theileria velifera. Twenty (10.7%) out of the one hundred and eighty-seven (187) Plasmodium-like smear positive cases, were suspected (smear positive but RDT negative) of Babesia/Theileria infection, with 6 (30.0%) amplified and identified as Theileria velifera after successful sequencing. Conclusion: Babesia/Theileria has been found in all the study groups (dogs, cattle and humans). This is the first report of human theileriosis (caused by Theileria velifera) in Ghana.
NIRIWA, B (2021). Occurrence Of Babesia / Theileria Amongst Humans, Cattle, And Dogs At The Middle Belt Of Ghana. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/occurrence-of-babesia-theileria-amongst-humans-cattle-and-dogs-at-the-middle-belt-of-ghana
NIRIWA, BENJAMIN "Occurrence Of Babesia / Theileria Amongst Humans, Cattle, And Dogs At The Middle Belt Of Ghana" Afribary. Afribary, 11 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/occurrence-of-babesia-theileria-amongst-humans-cattle-and-dogs-at-the-middle-belt-of-ghana. Accessed 25 Sep. 2023.
NIRIWA, BENJAMIN . "Occurrence Of Babesia / Theileria Amongst Humans, Cattle, And Dogs At The Middle Belt Of Ghana". Afribary, Afribary, 11 Apr. 2021. Web. 25 Sep. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/occurrence-of-babesia-theileria-amongst-humans-cattle-and-dogs-at-the-middle-belt-of-ghana >.
NIRIWA, BENJAMIN . "Occurrence Of Babesia / Theileria Amongst Humans, Cattle, And Dogs At The Middle Belt Of Ghana" Afribary (2021). Accessed September 25, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/occurrence-of-babesia-theileria-amongst-humans-cattle-and-dogs-at-the-middle-belt-of-ghana