Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover in Birigi Village of Niger State

Olamide Falusi 72 PAGES (16208 WORDS) Project
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The excavation of laterite has totally removed the vegetative cover of the land area which served as an ecosystem community for Plants and Animals Resistant and successional species of plants and animals would be able to cope with unstable situations which were caused   by the excavation activities.

The dwellers around the excavation site are not well enlightened about the environmental impact of the laterite excavation activity in their locality; they only see it as a source of income without considering the immense effect it would have on them and the surrounding communities on the long run.

The degradation of the natural landscape is one of the main factors that occur from the excavation of laterite materials; this further creates deep pits on the land surface and automatically brings about the occurrence of Gully erosion. Excavation activities also distort the geological landscape in the study area as it leads to the occurrence of landslide, subsidence, and tremors. Studies have proved that the excavation of mineral materials is the main driver of the economy in many developed and third world countries such as Nigeria. Therefore it is important to study the effects of posed by the excavation of laterites which includes problems such as abandoned sites, biodiversity loss, and landscape distortion. Remote sensing Satellite imagery has proven to be a vital tool in estimating the rate of laterite excavation and it also shows the vulnerability of the vegetated covered areas to the excavation site. It is very important to note that there should be an immediate land use planning system, and this has to be strictly followed to reduce the impact of laterite excavation on the vegetative cover of the land area in Birigi Village. This would help in the proper management of the excavation site, and it would help to reduce severe damages to the vegetative land cover of the study area.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Chapter One 
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study…………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Statement of Problem………………………………………………………………….…3
1.3 justification of the Study…………………………………………………………………4
1.4 Aim and Objectives…………………………………………………………………….....5
1.5 Scope of the study…………………………………………………………….……….….5
1.6 Location of the Study Area ……………………………………………………………..6
1.7 Geography of the Study Area………………………………………………….……….7
1.7.1 Climate………………………………………………………………………………….7
1.7.2 Geology…………………………………………………………………………………8
1.7.3 Soil and Vegetation…………………………………………………………………….9

Chapter Two
2.0 Concepts/ Literature Review…………………………………………………………..10
2.1 Concepts………………………………………………………………………………….10
2.1.1 Excavation………………………………………………………………………………10
2.1.2 Excavation Types……………………………………………………………………….11
2.1.3 The kinds of Excavation activity been practiced………………………………………12
2.2 Laterite……………………………………………………………………………………14
2.2.1 Characteristics of Laterite……………………………………………………………17
2.2.2 Uses of laterite………………………………………………………………………….17
2.2.3 Vegetal Cover………………………………………………………………………......18
2.2.4 Remote Sensing…………………………………………………………………………19
2.2.5 GIS……………………………………………………………………………………….19
2.2.6 Land Cover………………………………………………………………………………20
2.2.7 Land Use………………………………………………………………………………….21
2.2.8 Change Detection………………………………………………………………………21
2.3 Literature…………………………………………………………………………………22
2.3.1 A review on the Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover…………………..22

Chapter Three
Methodology……………………………………………………………………………….30
3.1 Materials and Method……………………………………………………………………..30
3.2 Data and Data Sources…………………………………………………………………….31
3.3 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………..33
3.4 Software’s to be used………………………………………………………………………35

References……………………………………………………………………………………….39
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APA

Olamide, F (2018). Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover in Birigi Village of Niger State. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 12, 2018, from https://afribary.com/works/olamide-undergraduate-project

MLA 8th

Falusi, Olamide. "Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover in Birigi Village of Niger State" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 23 Oct. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/olamide-undergraduate-project . Accessed 12 Dec. 2018.

MLA7

Falusi, Olamide. "Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover in Birigi Village of Niger State". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 23 Oct. 2018. Web. 12 Dec. 2018. < https://afribary.com/works/olamide-undergraduate-project >.

Chicago

Falusi, Olamide. "Impact of Laterite Excavation on Vegetal Cover in Birigi Village of Niger State" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed December 12, 2018. https://afribary.com/works/olamide-undergraduate-project