Prevalence and Economic Burden of Malaria Among Family Housing in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria

The MasterMind Project Achwai Isaac Hezekiah 85 PAGES (20655 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and economic burden of malaria among family households in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria. This study employed purposive and simple random sampling techniques to select 120 respondents from three (3) health facilities namely; Primary Health Center, Richa; General Hospital, Bokkos and Church of Christ in Nations (COCIN) Dispensary, Daffo. Two sources of data were used for the study; primary data and secondary data. Primary data was elicited with the aid of well-structured questionnaire on the demographic characteristics of respondents, malaria incidence and willing to pay for malaria eradication. Secondary data were obtained from the health records of three health facilities and the information sought included cost, public expenditure and number of reported cases of malaria and associated treatment. Data analysis was achieved using both descriptive and inferential statistical tools such as mean, percentages, frequency distribution, cross tabulations, willingness to pay (WTP) approach and multiple linear regressions. The result showed that malaria prevalence was highest among children below 5 years (40.37%), primary education certificate holders (53.05%), artisan/farmers (37.07%), household with size between 14 – 17 persons (43.88%). On average basis, households were willing to pay N1,811.31 (±1831.44), N811.83 (±N403.84) and N2,623.14 (±N2152.68) per month for treatment, preventive measures and total eradication respectively. The results of the determinants of the amount the households were willing to pay (WTP) for the malaria eradication showed that the significant determinants were household expenditure, level of education, costs of protection and treatment, indirect cost (value of hours lost at work, transport cost to clinic) and household size. Household size had positive relationship with the malaria prevalence while age, educational level and household expenditure had negative effects with malaria prevalence. Also household expenditure, level of education, costs of protection and treatment, indirect cost (value of hours lost at work, transport cost to clinic) and household size were significant determinants of the amount the households were willing to pay (WTP) for the malaria eradication. The economic burden of malaria was very enormous especially for the poor households who predominated the study area as indirect cost was N3,122.41, average willing to pay was in excess of N221.09 over the actual amount of treatment of a child was N1,414.69 per child per malaria episode, in excess of N324.17 over N766.34 of the actual expense to treat an adult per malaria episode and willingness to pay for prevention in excess of N219.35 over actual payment of N1,749.83 per household. It is recommended that public health education especially in local languages should be intensified in the area. In addition, government and non-governmental organizations should subsidize the cost of malaria treatment particularly with the new and more expensive artemisinin-based combination therapy and encourage free distribution of treated mosquito nets to the households particularly among the poor income earners.

KEYWORDS: Prevalence and economic burden of malaria; Malaria; Malaria incidence.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Table of Contents v

Lists of Tables viii

Lists of Figures ix

Abstract x


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. 1.1  Background information 1

  2. 1.2  Problem Statement 3

  1. 1.3:  Objectives of the Study 5

  2. 1.4:  Research Questions 6

1.5 Justification for the study 6

1.6: Hypotheses Testing 8

1.7 Plan of the study 8


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. 2.1  Theoretical Literature of Social and Economic burden of Malaria 9

  2. 2.2  Overview of Malaria Control Activities and Programmes in Nigeria 10

  3. 2.3  Empirical Literature of economic burden of malaria in Nigeria 12


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  1. 3.1  Research Design 30

  2. 3.2  Methods 30

  1. 3.2.1  Area of study 30

  2. 3.2.2  Research Design 32

  3. 3.2.3  Study Population 32

  4. 3.2.4  Sample selection procedure 32

  5. 3.2.5  Instrument for the Data collection 33

  6. 3.2.6  Validation of the instrument 33

  7. 3.2.7  Methods of Data collection 33

  8. 3.2.8  Data Analysis 34

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Results 37

  1. 4.1.1  Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents 37

  2. 4.1.2  Prevalence of Malaria among Socio-Economic Status of the Respondents 39

Epidemiology of Malaria in Nigeria 14 Social implication of malaria and their relationship with poverty 18

Connectivity of malaria incidence and poverty index 19

Inequalities in the Quality of Malaria Treatment: 24

Malaria and its impact on economic growth 26 Willingness to Pay for Malaria prevention and control measures 28

4.1.3: Effects of Socio-Economic Status (SES) on Malaria Prevalence and Incidence 41

4.1.4: Amount willing to pay for improved malaria prevention and control measures

and its determinants 43

4.1.5 Determinants of the amount that Household are willing to pay for Malaria Eradication 45

4.2 Discussion 47


CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. 5.1  Summary

  2. 5.2  Conclusion

  3. 5.3  Recommendations

APPENDICES REFERENCES



 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). Prevalence and Economic Burden of Malaria Among Family Housing in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 06, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-malaria-among-family-housing-in-bokkos-l-g-a-plateau-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence and Economic Burden of Malaria Among Family Housing in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-malaria-among-family-housing-in-bokkos-l-g-a-plateau-state-nigeria . Accessed 06 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence and Economic Burden of Malaria Among Family Housing in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 06 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-malaria-among-family-housing-in-bokkos-l-g-a-plateau-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "Prevalence and Economic Burden of Malaria Among Family Housing in Bokkos L.G.A, Plateau State, Nigeria" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed March 06, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-economic-burden-of-malaria-among-family-housing-in-bokkos-l-g-a-plateau-state-nigeria