Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Medical Laboratory Science Students In The University Of Health And Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana

ABSTRACT Rationale: Hepatitis B disease is a critical work-related menace for clinical health facility workers and poses a more serious occupational risk for health care students due to their inexperience in the field of work during their vocational training programmes in various health care facilities across the Country. Among health care students, medical laboratory science students (MLSS) are at a higher risk since laboratory technicians are among the elevated risk groups of hepatitis B virus infection. In spite of these, data on prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B illness among MLSS in Ghana as a whole is unknown. This study therefore determined the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B infection among MLSS at the University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS), Ho, Ghana. Methodology: The research work was conducted among 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students in the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, UHAS using a cross-sectional study design. Simple random sampling method was used to recruit students from each year group. A total of 178 students participated in the study. A proportion to size ratio was used to estimate the number of study participants interviewed from each year group. In all, 91(51.1%), 64(36.0%) and 23(12.9%) of the study participants were 2nd, 3rd and 4th year students respectively. Closed-ended questionnaire was used to gather relevant information on risk factors. Food and Drugs Authority approved HBsAg rapid diagnostic test kits were used to test for the presence of hepatitis B infection among study participants. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ghana Health Service Ethical Review Committee (GHSERC). Chi-square test, bivariate and multiple logistic regression statistical analyses were used to estimate chi2 values, crude odds ratios, adjusted odds ratios, confidence intervals and p-values. Results: Out of the 178 students surveyed, 78.1% were males, majority (66.3%) were of ages between 20-24 years and the least (8.4%) were within the 15-19 years. A greater number (87.1%) students had no work history and 59.0% had less than 2 months vocational training experience. The prevalence of HBV infection among MLSS was 6.7%. Hepatitis B virus exposure through sharp-related injuries and torn gloves was 7.9% and 32.0% respectively. A significant number (43.3%) of students had received at least a dose of Hepatitis B vaccination. Sharp related injury increased the odds of HBV infection among the students by more than 10 times (AOR = 10.35, p-value = 0.034) compared to those who experienced no sharp injury whiles torn gloves increased the odds of HBV infection among the students by almost 6 times (AOR = 5.90, p-value = 0.019) compared to those whose gloves were not torn. Meanwhile, vaccination decreased the odds of HBV infection among the students by almost 91% (AOR = 0.09, p-value = 0.033) compared to students who never received any dose of Hepatitis B vaccination during the period of the study. Hepatitis B risk related factors such as needle prick, splash of blood and other body fluids, sexual activities and use of STD preventive measures were not significantly associated with the prevalence of HBV infection among the students surveyed.

Conclusion and Recommendation: The HBV infection prevalence of this study was 6.7%, which is still high though but not statistically different from the current national rate of 12.3% and endemicity level of 8%. Sharp related injuries, torn gloves and vaccination vi were strong predictors of the infection. Preceding the commencement of vocational training programmes, training sessions should be organized by the university on safety procedures involved in handling sharp-related objects and also on the wearing and removal of gloves which appears to account for the endemic prevalence of HBV infection among medical laboratory science students.

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APA

TAWIAH, P (2021). Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Medical Laboratory Science Students In The University Of Health And Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-laboratory-science-students-in-the-university-of-health-and-allied-sciences-ho-volta-region-ghana

MLA 8th

TAWIAH, PHILIP "Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Medical Laboratory Science Students In The University Of Health And Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana" Afribary. Afribary, 13 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-laboratory-science-students-in-the-university-of-health-and-allied-sciences-ho-volta-region-ghana. Accessed 26 May. 2024.

MLA7

TAWIAH, PHILIP . "Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Medical Laboratory Science Students In The University Of Health And Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana". Afribary, Afribary, 13 Apr. 2021. Web. 26 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-laboratory-science-students-in-the-university-of-health-and-allied-sciences-ho-volta-region-ghana >.

Chicago

TAWIAH, PHILIP . "Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Medical Laboratory Science Students In The University Of Health And Allied Sciences, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 26, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-laboratory-science-students-in-the-university-of-health-and-allied-sciences-ho-volta-region-ghana