Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Federal Medical Center in Markudi



Cover page

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration page                                                                                                                     ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                                                                    vi

Lists of Tables                                                                                                                         vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi


1.0  INTRODUCTION                                                                                                           1

1.1 Background of the Study                                                                                                  1

1.2 Statement of Problem                                                                                                       2

1.3 Justification of the Study                                                                                                  3

1.4 Aim of the Study                                                                                                              3

1.4.1 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                 3


2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                                4

2.1viral Hepatitis                                                                                                                    4

2.2 Description of Hepatitis B and C virus                                                                             4

2.3 Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C Virus                                                                        7

2.4 Transmission and Pathogenesis of Hepatitis B and C Virus                                            8

2.5 Clinical Presentation                                                                                                         10

2.6 Hepatitis B and C virus co-infection                                                                                13

2.7 Diagnosis of Hepatitis B and C Virus                                                                              14

2.8 Treatment of Hepatitis B and C virus                                                                               16

2.9 Prevention and control Hepatitis B and C virus                                                               17


3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                                     19

3.1Study area                                                                                                                          19

3.2 Study Design and study objects                                                                                        19

3.3 Selection criteria               `                                                                                               19

3.3.1Inclusion criteria                                                                                                             19

3.3.2 Exclusion criteria                                                                                                           19

3.5 Sample size determination                                                                                                19

3.6 Data Collection                                                                                                                 20

3.7 Ethical Consideration                                                                                                       20

3.8 Sample collection                                                                                                             21

3.9 Screening for hepatitis b and c profile among pregnant women                                      21

3.10 Statistical analysis                                                                                                          21


4.0 Results                                                                                                                              23


5.0 Discussion, conclusions and recommendations                                                                33

5.1 Discussion                                                                                                                         33

5.2 Conclusions                                                                                                                       34

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                                            35

References                                                                                                                              36


Hepatitis B and C infections are potentially life-threatening liver infection and a major global health problem. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Federal Medical Centre Makurdi.  A systematic random sampling technique was used to select pregnant women. A total of 155 pregnant women were recruited for the study. Data on sociodemographic and associated factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Their venous blood samples collected, and hepatitis B and c profile was carried out using commercially available rapid chromatographic kits.  The overall prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections among pregnant women was 7.7% and 14.19% respectively. However, there was no co-infection.   Educational status was notably associated with Hepatitis B and C infections prevalence. Uneducated pregnant women had the highest prevalence of HBsAg and HCV infections (16.67% and 23.33% respectively). Age, marital status, blood transmission history, vaccination history, occupation were all factors contributing to Hepatitis B and C prevalence. This study showed that hepatitis B and C is  endemic in this region. The provision of proper awareness on hepatitis B and C viruses’ transmission, vaccination, and screening of all pregnant women routinely are essential for the prevention of these viruses




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jeffrey, E (2023). Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Federal Medical Center in Markudi. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

Jeffrey, Egbunu "Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Federal Medical Center in Markudi" Afribary. Afribary, 01 May. 2023, Accessed 23 Jul. 2024.


Jeffrey, Egbunu . "Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Federal Medical Center in Markudi". Afribary, Afribary, 01 May. 2023. Web. 23 Jul. 2024. < >.


Jeffrey, Egbunu . "Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Federal Medical Center in Markudi" Afribary (2023). Accessed July 23, 2024.