INVESTIGATION INTO FLOOD FLOW PATTERN(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD AND DAN FODIO BOULEVARD, AKOKA,YABA, LAGOS)

Oluwadamilola Afolabi 90 PAGES (15558 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Floods are the most devastating of all natural disasters, accounting for about one-third of theeconomic losses and over half of  the deaths associated  with natural disasters worldwide.Flooding in Lagos has become a frequent hazard which is caused by the bad condition of thedrainage systems along the road and the unavailability of water channels to contain excesswater   in   case   of   heavy   rain.   The   flood   problem  is   worsened   with   heavy   rains   and   theblockade of the drainage systems.The study area is the route from University road and Dan Fodio Boulevard, Akoka, Lagos,which is 2.625Km in length. This project aims at investigating the flood flow pattern alongthe study route and provides a flood flow map for the purpose of safe navigation through theroute. So based on this study, the flood damages could be reduced to its minimal amount. Theproject   was   executed   using   Total   Station   Leica   Ts06   with   its   accessories   for   positiondetermination   (X,   Y   and   H   data)   and   Sun   DSC   232   Digital   Level   Instrument   with   itsaccessories for height determination (H data). The acquired data were sorted and processedusing ArcGIS 10.3, Microsoft Excel, Notepad and AutoCAD Civil 3D 2017 software. Theresults obtained were used to produce a flood flow map. From the analysis of the result, itwas deduced that the major cause of flooding along the route are blockage of drainage due tosediment,  the   elevation   model   also   shows   that   the   road   is   at   the   same   height   with   thedrainages and also there is no hole in the drainages in other to channel the flow of water tothe drainage or any other distributaries. Flood forecasting and warning is a prerequisite forsuccessful mitigation of flood damage. Its effectiveness depends on the level of preparednessand correct response.iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION 

DEDICATION II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III

ABSTRACT IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS V

LIST OF FIGURES IX

LIST OF TABLES X


CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION) 1

1.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1

1.1 ELEMENTS OF ROUTE SURVEY 3

1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION 4

1.3 AIM 4

1.4 OBJECTIVES 4

1.5 BENEFIT OF PROJECT 5

1.6 STUDY AREA 5

1.6.1 SITE OVERVIEW 7v

1.6.2 SITE DESCRIPTION 8

1.7 SCOPE OF PROJECT 8


CHAPTER TWO (LITERATURE REVIEW) 9

2.0 BACKGROUND STUDY                                                                                           9

2.1 ROUTE SURVEYING 19

2.2 DATA ACQUISITION TECHNIQUES 20

2.3 ERRORS IN SURVEY 21

2.3.1 TYPES OF SURVEYING ERRORS 21

2.4  OBSERVABLES AND DELIVERABLES IN ROUTE SURVEYS 24

2.4.1 OBSERVABLES 24

2.4.2 DELIVERABLES 24


CHAPTER THREE (METHODOLOGY) 26

3.0 DATA ACQUISITION AND DATA PROCESSING 26

3.1 RECONNAISSANCE 26

3.1.1 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE 27

3.1.2 OFFICE RECONNAISSANCE 27

3.2 INSTRUMENTATION 28

3.2.1 HARDWARE 28

3.2.2 SOFTWARE 28

3.3 TEST OF INSTRUMENTS 31vi

3.4 ROUTE SURVEY 31

3.4.1 INSTRUMENT SETUP AND CALIBRATION 31

3.4.1.1 Total Station Setup 32

3.4.1.2 Level Setup 33

3.4.2 CALIBRATING THE INSTRUMENT 33

3.4.3 DATA ACQUISITION PROCEDURE 34

3.5 PERSONNEL 34

3.6 DATA PROCESSING 35

3.6.1 DATA SORTING 35

3.6.1.1 Traverse Data Processing 35

3.6.1.2 Levelling Data Processing 35

3.6.1.3 Arc Map Data Processing 36


CHAPTER FOUR (RESULT AND ANALYSIS) 38

4.0 RESULTS 38

4.1.1 TRAVERSING 51

4.1.2 LEVELING 52

4.1.3 FLOW DIRECTION 53

4.1.4 FLOW ACCUMULATION 54

4.1.5 FLOW LENGTH 57

4.2 ANALYSIS 59vii


CHAPTER FIVE (CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION) 60

5.0 CONCLUSION 60

5.1 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED 61

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 61

REFERENCES 62

APPENDIX I 68

APPENDIX II 81

LIST OF FIGURviii

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APA

Oluwadamilola, A (2019). INVESTIGATION INTO FLOOD FLOW PATTERN(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD AND DAN FODIO BOULEVARD, AKOKA,YABA, LAGOS). Afribary.com: Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/project-8943

MLA 8th

Afolabi, Oluwadamilola. "INVESTIGATION INTO FLOOD FLOW PATTERN(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD AND DAN FODIO BOULEVARD, AKOKA,YABA, LAGOS)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 26 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/project-8943 . Accessed 22 Nov. 2019.

MLA7

Afolabi, Oluwadamilola. "INVESTIGATION INTO FLOOD FLOW PATTERN(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD AND DAN FODIO BOULEVARD, AKOKA,YABA, LAGOS)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 26 Jul. 2019. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/project-8943 >.

Chicago

Afolabi, Oluwadamilola. "INVESTIGATION INTO FLOOD FLOW PATTERN(A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY ROAD AND DAN FODIO BOULEVARD, AKOKA,YABA, LAGOS)" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed November 22, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/project-8943