Silage Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Panicum Maximum Ensiled with or without Browse Seeds (Enterolobuum Cyclocarpum and Albizia Saman

Adesina Abiodun 89 PAGES (18933 WORDS) Project
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The present study evaluated the silage characteristics and nutritive quality of panicum maximum ensiled with or without browse seeds. The study was a 7 x 2 factorial experiment, constituting of panicum maximum harvested at different maturity stages ensiled with two browse plant seeds (Enterolobium cyclocarpum and albizia saman) at different proportions(100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and25:75).Data o pH,  Temperature and physical characteristics of the silage were recorded. There no significant (p<0.05) changes in the pH and temperature of the silage were recorded 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page..........................................................................................................................................i
Certification.....................................................................................................................................ii
Abstract .........................................................................................................................................iii
Dedication........................................................................................................................................v
Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................vi
Table of Contents.........................................................................................................................viii
List of Table..................................................................................................................................xii
List of Figures..............................................................................................................................xiiv
CHAPTER ONE............................................................................................................................1
1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................1
1.1 Broad objective.................................................................................................................3
1.2 Specific objectives............................................................................................................3
CHAPTER TWO...........................................................................................................................4
2.0 Literature Review..............................................................................................................4
2.1 Silage and the ensiling process.........................................................................................4
2.2 Ensiling factors.................................................................................................................5
2.3 Respiration and temperature at ensiling............................................................................6
2.4 Spoilage micro-organisms in silage and their fermentation products...............................9
2.5 Changes in protein and fiber composition during ensiling.............................................10
CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................13
3.0 Materials and Methods....................................................................................................13
3.1 Experimental site.............................................................................................................13
3.2 Source of plant material..................................................................................................13
3.3 Experimental design........................................................................................................14
3.4 Harvesting of the grasses................................................................................................15
3.5 Silage making..................................................................................................................15
3.6 Physical characteristics and chemical composition of the silage....................................15
3.7 Data collection: Physical characteristics.........................................................................16
3.7.1 Determination of temperature and pH............................................................................16
3.7.2 Physical characteristics...................................................................................................16
3.8 Chemical analyses...........................................................................................................16
3.9 Statistical analysis...........................................................................................................17
3.9 Statistical model..............................................................................................................17
CHAPTER FOUR.......................................................................................................................18
4.0 Results and Discussion....................................................................................................18
4.1 Results.............................................................................................................................18
4.1.1 Effect of forage proportions and harvest stages on the proximate composition
and fibre fractions of fresh Panicum maximum in mixtures with two browse seeds.....18
4.1.2 Interaction of forage proportions × harvest stages on the proximate composition
and fibre fractions of fresh Panicum maximum in mixtures with two browse seeds.....20
4.1.3 Effect of forage proportions and harvest stages on the mineral content and
anti-nutritional factors of fresh Panicum maximum in mixtures with two
browse seeds (Albizia saman and Moringa oleifera).....................................................22
4.1.4 Interaction of forage proportions × harvest stages on the proximate composition
and fibre fractions of fresh Panicum maximum in mixtures with two browse
seeds (Albizia saman and Moringa oleifera)..................................................................24
4.1.5 Effect of ensiling proportions and harvest stages on the silage
physico-chemical characteristics of silage made from Panicum maximum
in proportion with two browse seeds..............................................................................26
4.1.6 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the silage
physico-chemical characteristics of silage made from Panicum maximum
in proportion with two browse seeds..............................................................................28
4.1.7 Effect of ensiling proportions and harvest stages on the silage fermentative
characteristics and dry matter content of silage made from Panicum maximum
in proportion with two browse seeds..............................................................................30
4.1.8 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the fermentative
characteristics of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with
two browse seeds............................................................................................................32
4.1.9 Effect of proportions and harvest stages on the total anaerobic counts of silage
made from Panicum maximum in proportion with two browse seeds............................34
4.1.10 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the total anaerobic bacterial
count of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with two browse seeds...36
4.1.11 Effect of ensiling proportions and harvest stages on the total anaerobic counts
of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with two browse seeds.............39
4.1.12 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the Lactobacillus bacteria
counts of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with two browse seeds..39
4.1.13 Effect of ensiling proportions and harvest stages on the total fungi counts of
silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with two browse seeds.................42
4.1.14 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the Lactobacillus
bacteria counts of silage made from Panicum maximum in proprotion with
two browse seeds............................................................................................................42
4.1.15 Effect of forage proportions and harvest stages on the proximate composition
and fibre fraction of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with
two browse seeds............................................................................................................45
4.1.16 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the proximate composition
and fibre fractions of silage made from Panicum maximum in proportion with
two browse seeds............................................................................................................47
4.1.17 Effect of ensiling proportions and harvest stages on the mineral content
and anti-nutritional factors of silage made from Panicum maximum in
proportion with two browse seeds..................................................................................49
4.1.18 Interaction of ensiling proportions × harvest stages on the mineral content
and anti-nutritional factors of silage made from Panicum maximum harvested
at ensiled with two browse seeds....................................................................................51
4.2 Discussion.......................................................................................................................53
CHAPTER FIVE.........................................................................................................................57
5.0 Conclusions.....................................................................................................................57
5.1 Recommendations...........................................................................................................57
REFERENCES............................................................................................................................58
APPENDIX I................................................................................................................................7
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APA

Adesina, A (2019). Silage Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Panicum Maximum Ensiled with or without Browse Seeds (Enterolobuum Cyclocarpum and Albizia Saman. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 19, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/silage-characteristics-and-nutritional-quality-of-panicum-maximum-ensiled-with-or-without-browse-seeds-enterolobuum-cyclocarpum-and-albizia-saman

MLA 8th

Abiodun, Adesina. "Silage Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Panicum Maximum Ensiled with or without Browse Seeds (Enterolobuum Cyclocarpum and Albizia Saman" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 12 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/silage-characteristics-and-nutritional-quality-of-panicum-maximum-ensiled-with-or-without-browse-seeds-enterolobuum-cyclocarpum-and-albizia-saman . Accessed 19 Aug. 2019.

MLA7

Abiodun, Adesina. "Silage Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Panicum Maximum Ensiled with or without Browse Seeds (Enterolobuum Cyclocarpum and Albizia Saman". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 12 Jul. 2019. Web. 19 Aug. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/silage-characteristics-and-nutritional-quality-of-panicum-maximum-ensiled-with-or-without-browse-seeds-enterolobuum-cyclocarpum-and-albizia-saman >.

Chicago

Abiodun, Adesina. "Silage Characteristics and Nutritional Quality of Panicum Maximum Ensiled with or without Browse Seeds (Enterolobuum Cyclocarpum and Albizia Saman" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed August 19, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/silage-characteristics-and-nutritional-quality-of-panicum-maximum-ensiled-with-or-without-browse-seeds-enterolobuum-cyclocarpum-and-albizia-saman