SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF Salmonella typhi AND OTHER BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND HOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa

ABSTRACT
The susceptibilities of Salmonella typhi and other pathogens to antibiotics and hot aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated using agar diffusion and agar well diffusion methods respectively. Salmonella typhi was sensitive to ampicillin, cetriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin of ofloxacin and perfloxacin. Nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, clarithomycin and augumentin are resistant. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to 50%, 70% and 60% of the antibiotics respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all antibiotics. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (0.6g in 6ml of sterile distilled water) was active against S. typhi at concentrations of 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml (inhibitions zone diameter IZDs = 23mm, 20mm and 16mm respectively). Staphylococcus aureus was susceptible to 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 29mm, 18mm, 17mm and 14mm respectively. Klebsiella spp was susceptible to concentrations of 25mg/ml and 12.5mg/ml of the extract with IZDs of 15mm and 10mm respectively. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to all the concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract. It is therefore imperative to note that the use of medicinal plants is recommended to the Government and Industry.

Table of Content
Title ………………………………………………………………i
Certification …....................................................................................ii
Dedication …………………………………………................iii
Acknowledgement ………………………………………….........iv
Table of content ………………………………………………….vi
List of tables ……………………………………………………….ix
List of figures …………………………………………….………...x
Appendix …………………………………………………………..xi
Abstract ………..………………………………………………….xii

Chapter one
Introduction …………………………………………………1
1.1 Aims and Objectives ……………………………………….….6

Chapter two
2.0 Literature review ……………………………………………....7
2.1 Plants extract review…………….…………………………….7
2.1.1 Brief history of medicinal plant …………………………..….9
2.1.2 Phytochemical components with antimicrobial activity ….…16
2.1.3 Characteristics of phytomedicine …………………………...18
2.1.4 Why the Demand for Phytomedicine ……………………….19
2.1.5 Challenges and Development in the use of phytomedicine…...20
2.1.6 Possible Solutions ……………………………………...…......22
2.2 A review of Hibiscus sabdariffa ………………………..….....24
2.2.1 Scientific classification ……………………………….….…...24
2.2.2 Description ……………………………………….…..……....25
2.2.3 Origin and distribution ……………………………………….26
2.2.4 Various names of H. sabdariffa ……………………………..28
2.2.5 Climate …………….………………………………………..30
2.2.6 Cultivation and harvesting …………………….………….. 30
2.2.7 Pests and diseases ………………………………………… 32
2.2.8 General uses OF H. sabdariffa ……………………………….. 33.
2.2.9 Phytomedicine ………………………………………….….38
2.2.3.1 Various research on H. Sabdariffa ……………..….…….38
2.3 Description of Salmonella typhi………………………………..40
2.3.1 Scientific classification OF Salmonella typhi ………….…41
2.3.2 History of typhoid fever ………….……………………….41
2.3.3 Causative Agent ………………………….……………….43
2.3.4 Mode of transmission ………………………………….....44
2.3.5 Signs and symptoms………………………………………46
2.3.6 Epidemiology of typhoid fever ………………………….48
2.3.7 Pathogenesis of Typhoid Fever …………………………..49
2.3.8 Prevention and control ……………………………………50
2.3.9  Diagnosis ………………………..………………………..51
2.34.1 Risk factors ……………………………………………….52
2.3.4.2 Treatment ……………………………………………...…52
2.3.4.3 Other pathogens …………………………………….…….53

Chapter three
Materials………………………………………………….…..57
3.1.1 Hard Equipments …………………..…………………...57
3.1.2 Soft wares …………………………….………………...57
3.1.3 Media used……………………………….…………......57
3.2. Collection and confirmatory of test organisms……..….58
3.2.1 Gram staining……………………………...…………...58
3.2.2 Biochemical Tests ………………………………..…....59
3.3 Collection and identification of plant material….…..….65
3.4 Extraction of plant material……………………………..65
3.5 Preparation of the Mcfarland’s Standard………….……66
3.6 Preparation of the cell suspension (inocular)……….…....67
3.7 Serial dilutions of the extract ………………………...…67
3.8 Antibiotics Susceptibility testing ………………………..68
3.9 Susceptibility testing using H. sabdariffa…………..……..70.

Chapter four
4.1 Results…………………………………………………………..71

Chapter five
5.1 Discussions of results……………………………………....77
5.2 Conclusion……..………………………………………......81
5.3 Recommendation.........................................................................…..82
References…………………………………………….…………….83

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APA

Raji, A. (2018). SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF Salmonella typhi AND OTHER BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND HOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/susceptibilities-of-salmonella-typhi-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-to-antibiotics-and-hot-aqueous-extract-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-6460

MLA 8th

Raji, Alex "SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF Salmonella typhi AND OTHER BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND HOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/susceptibilities-of-salmonella-typhi-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-to-antibiotics-and-hot-aqueous-extract-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-6460. Accessed 24 May. 2024.

MLA7

Raji, Alex . "SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF Salmonella typhi AND OTHER BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND HOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 24 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/susceptibilities-of-salmonella-typhi-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-to-antibiotics-and-hot-aqueous-extract-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-6460 >.

Chicago

Raji, Alex . "SUSCEPTIBILITIES OF Salmonella typhi AND OTHER BACTERIAL PATHOGENS TO ANTIBIOTICS AND HOT AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Hibiscus sabdariffa" Afribary (2018). Accessed May 24, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/susceptibilities-of-salmonella-typhi-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-to-antibiotics-and-hot-aqueous-extract-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-6460

Document Details
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