The Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATIONS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I

APPROVAL-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III

ACKNOWLEDGMENT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V

DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ VII

ABSTRACT----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VIII

CHAPTER ONE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.1 BACKGROUND --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.2 PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2

1.3 STUDY JUSTIFICATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

1.4 STUDY OBJECTIVES ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

1.4.1 BROAD OBJECTIVES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

1.4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

CHAPTER TWO---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

LITERATURE REVIEW-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

CHAPTER THREE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

STUDY METHODOLOGY ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

3.0 INTRODUCTION----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

3.1 STUDY DESIGN--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

3.2 STUDY SITE------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8

3.3 STUDY POPULATION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

3.4 INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

3.4.1 INCLUSION CRITERIA ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9

3.4.2 EXCLUSION CRITERIA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9

3.5 SAMPLING PROCEDURE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

3.5.2 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

1.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

3.8.1 DATA COLLECTION TOOL-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

vi

3.8.1 STUDY PROCEDURE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

1.9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10

3.10 DATA ANALYSIS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

3.11 STUDY LIMITATION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

CHAPTER FOUR --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

STUDY FINDINGS AND RESULTS-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

4.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

4.1 OBJECTIVE ONE FINDINGS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

CHAPTER FIVE----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

DISCUSSION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

5.1 DISCUSSIONS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15

5.2 CONCLUSION----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17

REFERENCE--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18

APPENDIX I: DATA COLLECTION TOOLS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20

APPENDIX II: PROPOSED WORK PLAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22

APPENDIX III: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

Abstract The frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant women (0.3-1.3%) is similar to that in nonpregnant women Changes, Overall, UTIs are 14 times more frequent in women than in men. This difference is attributed to the various factors. A retrospective study was conducted at Ishaka Adventist Hospital to determine the prevalence of UTI among mothers attending ANC at Ishaka Adventist Hospital. The study found that 26(30.23%) of the respondents were positive for UTI while 69.77% (60) mothers tested negative for UTI, most of the mothers which had UTI were within the parity of 0- 1 16(16.6%), most of the mothers who had UTI were within the age groups of 15-24 years old 21(21.4%), and further showed that most of the mothers who had UTI were within the third trimesters 15(15.4%), E.coli, 11(47.2%) and Enterococcus 5(22.7%). This study concluded that the physiological changes of pregnancy predispose women to UTI so does other factors such as age, parity and gestational age. All pregnant women should be screened for UTI with a urine culture, the goal of early diagnosis and treatment of UTI during pregnancy is to prevent complications with all the added benefits to the mother and the Fetus. This Study recommended that; The hospital should adapt the culture and sensitivity techniques in determining the presence and prevalence of UTI in pregnancy, the hospital should encourage education of mothers attending to the ANC on personal hygiene and infections prevention and that the hospital should screen all mothers attending to the ANC for possible asymptomatic UTI since the current system only deal with symptomatic infections of UTI.

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APA

ANTHAR, M (2022). The Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-prevalence-of-urinary-tract-infections-among-mothers-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-kiu-th

MLA 8th

ANTHAR, MABRUK "The Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/the-prevalence-of-urinary-tract-infections-among-mothers-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-kiu-th. Accessed 06 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

ANTHAR, MABRUK . "The Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022. Web. 06 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/the-prevalence-of-urinary-tract-infections-among-mothers-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-kiu-th >.

Chicago

ANTHAR, MABRUK . "The Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infections Among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kiu-Th" Afribary (2022). Accessed February 06, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/the-prevalence-of-urinary-tract-infections-among-mothers-attending-antenatal-clinic-at-kiu-th