The problems and prospect of delegations of authority as a manageemnt strategy in Unilever Nigeria PLC Enugu

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INTRODUCTION
Management is a social process entailing responsibilities for an effective planning and regulations of operation of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given purpose on task.  Breach E.F.L (1975)
Management is essentially the process of defecting the efforts of other people usually subordinators in order to achieve a  specific objective it could be said to be “the art of getting thing done through other people” the basic managerial functions of directing controlling planning organizing  staffing motivating and coordinating all involve the display of organizational skills administrative task and personal initiative executive talent and dynamism on the part of the manager.
Delegation is an organizational process that permits the transfer for authority from a superior to a subordinate the make commitments use resources to him. No organization can function effectively without delegation the derision of an organization into units e.g.  department involve delegation. Delegation originate from the fact that no-body can function alone successfully in an organizaiton.
In essence delegation of  authority means that a subordinate has the power to make decision and act within explicit limit without checking with the superiors. Delegation equally involves accountability.
 Delegation of authority  is an important administrative process of getting things done through other by sharing authority (or power) with them. In any typical organization by top management or any other approved body.
Delegation is an inescapable process in any organization big or small private or public. This is because no individual however talented and  accomplished can claim to have solution to all day-to day problems of the enterprise which he or she is involved  in the answer to those problem are best provided through efficient delegation. This is because these are the days of specialist.  Those specialist usually specialized in on of  organizational activities namely productive marketing personnel   accounting financial and  technical activities.  Indeed delegation is an attitudes. Of the mind and way of life of every goal seeking manager.
Delegation of authority enables quick decision to be made at all levels within the general policy framework laid down by the top management.  It lightens the burden of key officers in taking routine matters and enables them to concentrate on vital aspects of planning policy making and overall control thereby  ensuring administrative  convenience.  According Koontz and O’ Donnel “delegation is the due for efficient management and it determines how well one manages”
There are different group of people in an organization who are responsible for activities that contributes to the attainment of organizational goals.  These groups include top level management and other workers in he organization. The manager gives some limited resources determine the best way to utilize such resources optimally in order to activities some specified goals. It is through delegation of tasks that  a manager can get things done through his subordinates.  Delegation is the act of investing the subordinate with the authority to make decisions and carry out duties on task for which the manager is held responsible.  He is successful in getting things done through others is exercising the highest type of leadership. Without delegation managers action will be confirmed to what he can perform only.
In delegation task the manager should be able to recognize the special abilities and limitation of his subordinates.  This will help him to know which task to delegation to whom and why.  A wise manger who has the discretion to decide how many and which task to delegate should also know whom to delegate certain tasks to.
Finally delegation therefore means the granting of lights to subordinates to the prescribed areas.  As a result of delegation the subordinates receives authority from his superior at any time.
The  manager who makes masters the ant of delegating himself in a very good position because he can effectively discharge his duties. This is because he can have time to focus his attention on every important issues while those issues which are not very significant are handled by subordinates.
For effective delegation subordinates must understand the purpose of delegated function and the objective it intends to achieve.  If they are  able to relate this to the accomplishment of the over all company objectives and their own personal interest their performances is higher.
Duties assigned must be equal to the delegate. Fir there is an imbalances it results in frustration on the part of the supervisor as he seeks and fails to obtain the willing co-operation of his peers or subordinates.
For the employees to whom responsibility to be assigned and authority delegated must by judiciously selected.  Care must be taken to avoid employees who cannot accept criticism who lack confidence who are not easily   motivated.  The best manager is one who knows how much responsibility to delegate and hoe to be in control at all times.  Constant feedback is necessary in order to avert costly mistakes of  the subordinates


LITERATURE REVIEW
Delegation is an aspect of the organizing process by which a manager assigns duties to other (for example his subordinate) responsibilities and commensurate authority necessary for  the attainment of certain objectives.  Some management theorist and many practicing managers consider delegation as an act which is of great importance in organization  a two way activity involving they giving and acceptance of responsibility and authority and some of its advantages stem from a widening  of the area of responsibility while some of this problems are related to the  psychological difficulties which can result form sharing of authority.
William Newman in his contributions is of the view that delegation of authority involves three steps.
1.    The first is the assignment of duties by an executive to his immediate subordinate.
2.    The granting of permission or authority make commitments use of resources and take certain actions necessary for the accomplishment of objective
3.    The creation of an obligation on the part of the subordinates to the elective for the  satisfactory performance of the duties.
Delegation does not mean a total giving away or sun rendering   of authority. The delegation always retains the overall authority for the assigned duties. This is true whether he wish it to be so or not.  Delegation this implies granting of rights and approval for he delegates to act within the prescribed limits.  This clearly shows its dual characteristics.  He subordinates receive authority  from the superior and at the same time the superior still retains all of his original authority.  We can then like it to treading someone what you know. While the person taught acquires the  knowledge the teacher is till left  with his original knowledge.
When a production managers for example delegates to a subordinate manager have to label their container he is still responsible for what happens.  In his department in turn the authority that he exercise is delegation by the general manager or president who also had his authority from the board of directors. This situation establishment that in an organization there is always a chain of correlated authority extending from one management level to the next and reins through the entire structure.
Delegation is customarily  considered to descend from a higher level to the lower.  This is not necessarily true all  the time.  It can also run upwards laterally or side ways.  We are families with and downward delegation for instance whether the general manager delegates authority to a  department manager.  When a local government delegates  authority to a state government such a delegation is deserved to be upwards.  A lateral or horizontal or sideways delegation occurs when university delegates its authority to another or when one department delegates authority to another department within the company.
As a process management therefore implies many things.  Dynamic this defying rigid formula and orthodoxy.  It denotes activities continues through varying spans of time. Chances are likely to continue invading organizational life since the process is on going.  Lastly it implies    that the manager may be able to control and direct the nature and rate of changes within the organization up to a certain extent.
The management process is predicated on the various interactions of people that make  up the origination. Those who hold managerial positions at various level for example (Unilever Brother Nigeria PLC) are responsible for directing  influencing motivating guiding and controlling the performance of the subordinates as they work together towards achieving the corporate  objective. This means that the managerial behaviour should be goal- centered the organization’s work continues by this process of on going decision making planning action checking result etc.  this process that essentially describes management can be illustratively show diagrammatically blow   
The process begins with problem definition and recognition which is referred to as perception.  This is followed by plan development.  Action will follow by plan and results will be checked against the plan by means of a feedback loop.  If this checking that will direct and justify further planning and or for changes.  And the process continues.
Management involves many interrelationship of people hence the process is largely social in nature. This is not to say that non human element are not important. An example of this nature includes financial assets machinery physical equipment technology etc.  but it is the human resources into production  and this supplies people with the necessities of life

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). The problems and prospect of delegations of authority as a manageemnt strategy in Unilever Nigeria PLC Enugu. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-problems-and-prospect-of-delegations-of-authority-as-a-manageemnt-strategy-in-unilever-nigeria-plc-enugu-3182

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "The problems and prospect of delegations of authority as a manageemnt strategy in Unilever Nigeria PLC Enugu" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-problems-and-prospect-of-delegations-of-authority-as-a-manageemnt-strategy-in-unilever-nigeria-plc-enugu-3182. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "The problems and prospect of delegations of authority as a manageemnt strategy in Unilever Nigeria PLC Enugu". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-problems-and-prospect-of-delegations-of-authority-as-a-manageemnt-strategy-in-unilever-nigeria-plc-enugu-3182 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "The problems and prospect of delegations of authority as a manageemnt strategy in Unilever Nigeria PLC Enugu" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-problems-and-prospect-of-delegations-of-authority-as-a-manageemnt-strategy-in-unilever-nigeria-plc-enugu-3182