The Role of Human Activities On Wetland Degradation

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Approval ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement ix

List of Acronyms

Table of contents

List of Tables xiii

List of Figures ix

List of Plates

List of maps

Abstract ii


1 .0 Introduction

1 Background of the study I

1.2 Statement of the problem 2

1.3 Objectives of the study 2

1 .4 Research Questions 3

1.5 Scope of the study 3

1 .6 Significance of the study


2.0 Literature Review 4

2.1 introduction 1

2.2 The Value of the Wetlands $

2.3 Human activities and wetland degradation 9

2.4 Sustainable use and development of wetlands 12



3.0 Study Area and Research Methodology 1 5

3.1 Study Area 15

3.1.1 Location of study area 15

3.1.2 Topography 15

3.1.3 Ownership of land 15

3.1.4 Water sources 15

3.1.5 Vegetation and Climate 16

3.2 Research Methodology 16

3.2.1 Sample size and Sample Determination 16

3.2,2 Data collection methods and instruments 16 Data collection methods 16 Data collection instruments 16

3.3 Data Analysis 16

3.4 Anticipated problems 16


4.1 Introduction 18.

4.2 Main activities in Murambi wetland 1 8

4.2.1 Papyrus harvesting 19

4.2.2 Livestock grazing 20

4.2.3 Crop farming 22

4.2.4 Re-creational activities 23

4.2.5 Tree planting 25

4.3 Effects of human activities on Murambi wetland 27

4.3.1 Compaction of the wetland 28

4.3.2 Biodiversity loss 29

4.3.3 Soil erosion 30

4.3.4 Solutions to the wetland degradation 32




5.1 Conclusion of the study 35

5.1 . 1 Human activities in Murambi wetland 35

5.1.2 Effects of human activities on Murambi wetland 35

5.1.3 Solution to the wetland degradation 34

5.2 Recommendation 34

5.2.1 Reducing the level of human activities on Murambi wetland 34

5.2.2 Minimizing the effects of human activities on Murambi wetland 37

Bibliography 39

Appendix I Questionnaire format 4()

Appendix 11 Interview guide 45

Appendix 111 The map of Uganda 47

Appendix lv Map of Ruhaama county 48

Appendix v Permition letter 49


Table 1: Main human a

ABSTRACT~ A research study on the role of human activities on wetlands degradation was undertaken on Murambi wetland, Butare parish, Ntungamo sub-county in Ntungamo district of western Uganda. The objectives of the study were to identify the different human activities being carried out around Murambi wetlands, to find out the effects of human activities on the wetland and to find out what has been done to minimize the impacts of human activitics on Murambi wetland. The geographical scope of the study was limited to Murambi wetland. The methods used included the determination of the sample size. data collection methods and instruments. The sample size was 60 respondents, drawn from the 6 villages u hieh surround the wetland. The data collection methods were: - use of questionnaires and interview guide for the interview of key informants. Secondary data were collected through review of relevant literature. The study revealed that the main human activities being undertaken in and around Murambi wetland include; crop farming, papyrus harvesting, livestock grazing. tree planting and the establishment of re-creational activities. Crop farming was found to he the most prevalent human activity, followed by papyrus harvesting. Establishment of re creational activities was found by the study to be the least practiced human aetivit~ on the wetland, leading to loss of Bio diversity and soil erosion. The study revealed that no effort has been done by either the local community or the local leadership or by the conservation agencies. The study therefore recommends a number of ways, which can be used to reduce the effects of the human activities on the wetland. These include: the creation of public awareness and the education on the importance of conserving wetlands, the reallocation of some human activities to areas away from the wetland and the implementation of wetland conservation policies and regulation

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B., B (2022). The Role of Human Activities On Wetland Degradation. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

B., BOONA "The Role of Human Activities On Wetland Degradation" Afribary. Afribary, 19 Aug. 2022, Accessed 06 Feb. 2023.


B., BOONA . "The Role of Human Activities On Wetland Degradation". Afribary, Afribary, 19 Aug. 2022. Web. 06 Feb. 2023. < >.


B., BOONA . "The Role of Human Activities On Wetland Degradation" Afribary (2022). Accessed February 06, 2023.