Tsetse and other Biting Fly Responses to Nzi Traps Baited with Octenol, Phenols and Acetone


Octenol (1-octen-3-ol), acetone, 4-methylphenol, 3-n-propylphenol, and other potential attractants (human urine, stable fly faeces), as well as guiacol, creosol (potential repellents), were tested as baits for biting flies in North America using standard phthalogen blue IF3GM cotton Nzi traps, or similar commercial polyester traps. Baits were tested during the summers of 2001 – 04 at a residence in Canada and during January – August 2001 at a dairy in the U.S.A. Behaviour in the presence of octenol was also studied by intercepting flies approaching a trap through the use of transparent adhesive film. Analogous bait and/or trap comparisons were conducted in natural settings in June 1996 in Kenya and in September – December 1997 in Ethiopia. In Canada, catches of five of six common tabanids ( Tabanus similis Macquart, Tabanus quinquevittatus Wiedemann, Hybomitra lasiophthalma [Macquart], Chrysops univittatus Macquart, Chrysops aberrans Philip) and the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. were increased significantly by 1.2 – 2.1 times with octenol (1.5 mg/h). Catches of T. uinquevittatus and S. calcitrans were 3.5 – 3.6 times higher on a sticky enclosure surrounding a trap baited with octenol. No other baits or bait combinations had an effect on trap catches in North America. In Ethiopia, standard Nzi traps baited with a combination of acetone, octenol and cattle urine caught 1.8 – 9.9 times as many Stomoxys as similarly baited epsilon, pyramidal, NG2G, S3, biconical and canopy traps, in order of decreasing catch. When baits were compared, catches in Nzi traps of six stable fly species, including S. calcitrans , were not affected by octenol (released at approximately 1 mg/h), or cattle urine (140 mg/h), used alone or in combination with acetone (890 mg/h). Acetone alone, however, significantly increased the catches of common Stomoxys such as Stomoxys niger niger Macquart, Stomoxys taeniatus Bigot, and S. calcitrans by 2.4, 1.6 and 1.9 times, respectively. Catches of Glossina pallidipes Austen were increased significantly in traps baited with acetone, urine or octenol, or any combination, relative to those in unbaited traps (1.4 – 3.6x). Catches of Glossina morsitans submorsitans Newstead were increased significantly by 1.5 – 1.7 times, but only when baits were used individually. Unlike other studies with East African tsetse, catches of both tsetse species with the complete bait combination (acetone, urine and octenol) did not differ from those in unbaited traps. Experiments with an incomplete ring of electric nets surrounding a Nzi trap, and a new approach using a sticky enclosure made from transparent adhesive film, revealed diverse responses to artificial objects and baits among biting flies. In Kenya, daily trap efficiency estimates for traps baited with either carbon dioxide (6 L/min) or a combination of acetone, cattle urine and octenol were 21 – 27% for G. pallidipes , 7 – 36% for Glossina longipennis Corti, 27 – 33% for S. n. niger , and 19 – 33% for Stomoxys niger bilineatus Grünberg, assuming 100% electrocution efficiency. Actual trap efficiencies may have been lower, given observed outside : inside electric net catch ratios of 0.6 : 1.6. Observed ratios averaged 54% of expected values, with 10 of 15 possible ratios less than the minimum possible value of 1.0.
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S., M (2024). Tsetse and other Biting Fly Responses to Nzi Traps Baited with Octenol, Phenols and Acetone. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/tsetse-and-other-biting-fly-responses-to-nzi-traps-baited-with-octenol-phenols-and-acetone

MLA 8th

S., Mihok "Tsetse and other Biting Fly Responses to Nzi Traps Baited with Octenol, Phenols and Acetone" Afribary. Afribary, 10 Mar. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/tsetse-and-other-biting-fly-responses-to-nzi-traps-baited-with-octenol-phenols-and-acetone. Accessed 19 May. 2024.


S., Mihok . "Tsetse and other Biting Fly Responses to Nzi Traps Baited with Octenol, Phenols and Acetone". Afribary, Afribary, 10 Mar. 2024. Web. 19 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/tsetse-and-other-biting-fly-responses-to-nzi-traps-baited-with-octenol-phenols-and-acetone >.


S., Mihok . "Tsetse and other Biting Fly Responses to Nzi Traps Baited with Octenol, Phenols and Acetone" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 19, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/tsetse-and-other-biting-fly-responses-to-nzi-traps-baited-with-octenol-phenols-and-acetone