Water Availability And Household Sanitation and Hygiene: Case Study of Koboko Town Council, Kobo District Northern Uganda

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Declaration i Approval ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Table of contents v List of tables ix List of acronyms x Abstract xi CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.1.1 Historically Background 1 1.1.2 Theoretical Background 2 1.1.3 Conceptual Background 3 1.1.4 Contextual Background 3 1.1 Statement of the Problem 4 1.2 Objectives of the Study 5 1.2.1 General Objective 5 1.2.2 Specific Objectives 5 1.3 Research Questions 5 1.4 Scope of the Study 6 1.4.1 Geographical Scope 6 1.4.2 Content Scope 6 1.4.3 Time Scope 6 1.5 Significance of the Study 6 1.6 Conceptual Framework 8 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10 2.0 Introduction 10 2.1 Available Water Resources 10 2.1.1 Rivers, Lakes 10 V 2.1.2 PipedWater .10 2.1.3 Borehole Water 12 2.1.4 Damsandlntakes 12 2.1.5 Gravity Flow Schemes 12 2.2 Accessibility of the Available Water Sources 13 2.2.1 Planning Priorities 13 2.2.2 Distance and Cost of Collection 14 2.2.3 Available Storage Capacities 14 2.2.4 The Most Vulnerable Undertake the Role of Water Collection 14 2.2.5 Inadequate and Poor Support Structures in Regard to Accountability 14 2.2.6 The Investment Capacity is Lower than the Growing Need for Water 15 2.2.7 Deliberate Biases Against Particular Towns 15 2.3 Water Availability and its Influence on Household Sanitation and Hygiene 16 2.3.1 Leads to Loss of Lives 16 2.3.2 Poor Water Access Limits Functions ofPower 16 2.3.3 Vicious Cycle of Increased Malnutrition, Morbidity and Mortality 16 2.3.4 Leads to an Easy Spread of Communicable Diseases 16 2.4 Level of Achievement of Authorities in Improving Household Sanitation and Hygiene by Improving Access to Water Sources 17 2.4.1 The Population Growth Rate is Exceeds the Provided Water Sources 17 2.4.2 Management through Sub National Units 17 2.4.3 Creating Self Sustaining Urban Water Sub-Sector 18 2.4.4 On-Budget and Off-Budget Financing 18 2.4.5 Financing Capacities not Appropriately Geared to a Staged Approach 19 2.6 Possible Interventions 19 2.6.1 Proper Layout of Water Points 19 2.6.2 Promoting Coordinated and Sustainable Management of Water Resources 19 2.6.3 Provision of Adequate Water Storage Facilities 20 2.6.4 Aggregating Small Towns to Compound Budget 20 2.6.5 Synthesizing Existing Knowledge 20 2.6.6 There is Need for Inclusiveness 20 vi CHAPTER THREE:METHODOLOGY .22 3.0 Introduction 22 3.1 Research Design 22 3.2 Description of the Study Area 22 3.3 Sample Size 22 3.4 Sample Procedure 23 3.5 Data Collection 23 3.5.1 Frimaiy Data 23 3.5.2 Secondaiy Data 23 3.6 Data Processing 24 3.7 Data Analysis 24 3.8 Ethical Consideration 24 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATIONS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 25 4.0 Introduction 25 4.1 Demographic Distribution of the Respondents 25 4.1.1 Distribution of the Respondents by Gender 25 4.1.2 Distribution of the Respondents by Age 26 4.1.3 Education level of respondents 26 4.1.4 Marital Status of the Respondents 27 4.2 Available Water Resources in Koboko Town Council 28 4.3 Level of Accessibility of the Available Water Resources in Koboko 30 4.4 Water Availability and its Influence on Household Sanitation and Hygiene in Koboko33 4.5 Level of Success of the Town Council/District authorities in Improving Household Sanitation and Hygiene by Improving Access to Safe Water 35 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 38 5.0 Introduction 38 5.1 Conclusion 38 5.1.1 Available Water Sources in Koboko Town Council 38 5.1.2 Accessibility of the Available Water Sources in Koboko 38 5.1.3 Extent to which Accessibility of the Water Sources Influences Household Sanitation and Hygiene in Koboko Town Council 38 vii 5.1.4 Level of Success of the Town Council/District authorities in Improving Household Sanitation and Hygiene by Improving access to safe water Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2 Recommendations 38 5.2 Suggestion for Future Research 39 REFERENCES 40 appendix (i):questionnaire for the community members and leaders 43 appendix (ii): interview guide: for water authorities 46 appendix (ii): introductory letter Error! Bookmark not defined. appendix (iii): map of koboko district showing koboko town council 47 viii LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Gender Distribution of Respondents 25 Table 2: Age Distribution of the Respondents 26 Table 3: Education ofthe Respondents 26 Table 4: Marital Status of the Respondents 27 Table 5: Available water resources 28 Table 6: Level ofAccessibility of the Available Water Sources 30 Table 7: Impact of water availability on household sanitation and hygiene 33 Table 8: underlying success of town council authorities in improving household sanitation and hygiene through improved water access 35 ix LIST OF ACRONYMS APWO: Association ofPrivate Water Operators CDC: Center for Disease Control DWD: Department of Workforce Development EAP: Expert Advisory Panel GOU: Government ofUganda TIED: International Institute for Enviromnent and Development TWA: International Water Aid JPF: Joint Partnership Fund JWSSPS: Joint Water Supply and Sanitation Programme Support MDG: Millennium Development Goal MFPED: Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development MWE: Ministry of Water and Environment ODA: Official Development Aid PEAP: Poverty Eradication Action Plan RWSH: Rural Water, Sanitation and hygiene TJNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Education Fund UWSD: Under Water Seal Drain WHO: World Health Organization WWAP: World Water Assessment Programme x

ABSTRACT

The research on “Water Availability and Household Sanitation and Hygiene” was carried out in Koboko Town Council, Koboko District with specifically on finding out the available water sources; examine the level of accessibility of the available water sources; examine the extent to which accessibility of the water sources influences household sanitation and hygiene; and assess the level of success of town council authorities in improving household sanitation and hygiene by improving access to safe water The sample was selected purposively where the people most affected by water shortages in households, particularly the women were of significant importance. Purposive sampling was administered on the community members and leaders because they experience the sanitation and hygiene problems in case of water shortages. Stratified sampling was applied on the district water board employees and health personnel who were purposely selected because they work in the study area and thus had vital knowledge about the subject under study and thus satisfied the strata. During the study, the researcher took into consideration the different attributes of respondents such as age and sex and procedure therefore was based on demographic characteristics of the study respondents. A sample of 60 respondents was used in the study. It cut across the different ages and sex groups of the population, and it involved 20 men, 30 women, 4 Health personnel, and 6 members from Town Council water board and Water Aid Project. The data collected during the study was obtained through use of self administered, interviews and observations. Both close and open ended questionnaires were given to a cross section of respondents to aid and facilitate comprehensive data collection. This instrument helped in generating quantitative data. It was also selected because of its ability to minimize biased and unwarranted responses yet provided a lot of information and freedom to the respondents to exercise their independence in providing data. The study was both quantitatively and qualitatively designed through use of questionnaire and interview guide as study instrument administered on 60 respondents from camps

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APA

MUSTAFA, A (2022). Water Availability And Household Sanitation and Hygiene: Case Study of Koboko Town Council, Kobo District Northern Uganda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/water-availability-and-household-sanitation-and-hygiene-case-study-of-koboko-town-council-kobo-district-northern-uganda

MLA 8th

MUSTAFA, ANNA "Water Availability And Household Sanitation and Hygiene: Case Study of Koboko Town Council, Kobo District Northern Uganda" Afribary. Afribary, 13 Jun. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/water-availability-and-household-sanitation-and-hygiene-case-study-of-koboko-town-council-kobo-district-northern-uganda. Accessed 14 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

MUSTAFA, ANNA . "Water Availability And Household Sanitation and Hygiene: Case Study of Koboko Town Council, Kobo District Northern Uganda". Afribary, Afribary, 13 Jun. 2022. Web. 14 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/water-availability-and-household-sanitation-and-hygiene-case-study-of-koboko-town-council-kobo-district-northern-uganda >.

Chicago

MUSTAFA, ANNA . "Water Availability And Household Sanitation and Hygiene: Case Study of Koboko Town Council, Kobo District Northern Uganda" Afribary (2022). Accessed July 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/water-availability-and-household-sanitation-and-hygiene-case-study-of-koboko-town-council-kobo-district-northern-uganda