A Socio-Economic Responsibilities Of Women In Otukpo Clan In The 20th Century

Anderson Ugwu 74 PAGES (11633 WORDS) Project
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This study is chosen because of the significant role played by women in Idoma land particularly their cultural responsibilities to the Otukpo clan 
What stimulated the researcher to embark on this writing is to contribute to knowledge. Nothing much has been written on the significant role played by Idoma women in the area of their cultural responsibilities particularly in Otukpo clan. This study focuses on the cultural responsibilities of women to the Otukpo clan in Idoma land which form a large bulk of the economic activities of the present day Benue state of Nigeria. The study aims at an evaluation of the specific roles of women in Idoma land. It is for the purpose of this work to focus on the various developments achieved by women in Otukpo local government of Benue state which include socio-cultural development, economic development and to bring such significant role played by women into lime light from the period under review 
Attempt shall be made in this essay to give some knowledge of the nature and diversity of the role of women in the cultural developments of Otukpo clan. The researcher shall also assess the religious, cultural and other factors shaping their various roles and examine policies that have attested the position of women in Otukpo clan during the period under review. Basically, emphasis would be placed on gender relation in the society and how this might have influenced the various activities involving women. 
This essay focuses on women mainly because their cultural roles have not been sufficiently emphasized in historical writings. They are rather discussed most times as passing references. It is important to note that unless one goes into the field to specifically find out about the cultural contribution of women, there is the tendency of not pursuing in detail the role played by them.       

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE- - - - - - - - - - - i
CERTIFICATION- - - - - - - - - - ii
DEDICATION- - - - - - - - - - iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS- - - - - - - - - iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS- - - - - - - - - vi

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background of the Study- - - - - - - 1
1.2 Objective of the Study- - - - - - - - 3
1.3 Scope of the Study - - - - - - - - 5
1.4 Research Methodology and Problems- - - - - 6
1.5 Literature Review- - - - - - - - - 7
Note and Reference- - - - - - - - 12

CHAPTER TWO:
ORIGIN AND DYNAMICS OF IDOMA CULTURE    
2.1 The emergence of the Idoma kingdom- - - - - 13 
2.2 Culture and tradition of the Idoma kingdom- - - - 20  
2.3 The Values of Culture and Tradition of the Idoma kingdom - - 24
2.4 Socio-Cultural Responsibilities of Women in Idoma land- - - 26 
2.5 Women and the Preservation of the Idoma culture and tradition- 28 
Note and References - - - - - - - - 33

CHAPTER THREE:
Women Activities In Otukpo Clan 
3.1 The position of women in the family- - - - - - 35
3.2 The role of women in community service- - - - - 38
3.3 Age-Grade roles of women in Otukpo- - - - - 39 
3.4 Otukpo Women and Commerce- - - - - - 43 
3.5 Role of Otukpo Women in Industrial Development- - - 45
3.6 Role of women in Agriculture- - - - - - - 50  
3.7 Women and development of cooperative society in Otukpo clan- 51 
Note and References- - - - - - - - 56 

CHAPTER FOUR:
IMPACT OF WOMEN ON OTUKPO ECONOMY 
4.1 Women impact on trade and commerce - - - - - 58
4.2 Women impact on Agriculture - - - - - - - 59
4.3 Impact of Women on industrial development- - - - 60 
4.4 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 62
Note and References- - - - - - - - 64
Bibliography- - - - - - - - - 65

INTRODUCTION
This work centers on the cultural activities of women in the Otukpo clan in Idoma land in the 20th century. However, a brief origin of the Idomas is imperative at this stage. This introduction therefore is intended to go into the polemics of the origin of the Idoma nation. 
Tamuno1 in his essay on the people of Niger Benue, asserted that”with the exception of the Iyala, the Idoma claimed that their ancestors had a Wukari (i.e Jukun) origin. Such passive comments on the Idoma nation ran throughout almost all the historical works existing, until recently, when Professor E.O Erim of University of Calabar delved into origin of the Idoma nation in his book “The Idoma Nationality” 
According to Erim2, the Idoma people claim their ancestral home to be Apa, the region that harbours their historical neigbours the jukuns within the plains of the lower Benue. The Idoma nation is made up of twenty-two districts with sixteen Idoma proper and six non-Idoma speaking people comprising of Igede, Etulo, Akpa, Utonkon and Ulayi3. On the other hand, another theory on the origin of the Idoma added Ishake on the southern side living side by side with the Igbo settlers4. 
However, what is today known as Idoma that lies south of the River Benue with a population that has been estimated at slightly over one million by 2006 census figure, and it’s  area of land located within the broad valley of the Benue River and cross River basin has remained home for the Idomas over the century. The main thrust of the land is a contiguous belt of territory, which stretches from southern banks of River Benue to the northern fringes of Igbo land. These territories lie within latitude 600-300 north and longitude 800 east and cover a total land area of approximately 5.955 square kilometers5. 
The River Benue bound the Idoma people to the North, by parts of Igbo and Ogoja to the South, by the Tiv and Igede to the East and by Igala land to the West. The Idoma unanimously traced their traditions of origin to Apa (Beipi) tentatively associated with one time capital of the legendary kwararafa confederacy, which before the 15th century was under Abakpawatiga. The term Idoma is used to describe the decedents of a migration leader, Idu6. Informants from various ethnic groups for instance Adoka, Ugboju of Otukpo local government among others terrace their genealogies back to certain Idu who was their “putative founder” and the founder of different groups in Idoma land. 
The king lists of this distinct trace their genecology to the mystical Idu or Idom. There is no doubt that Idu was a historical figure. A typical Idoma genecology shows that Idu is the “father” of the different groups that came to their locations from kwararafa and at different phase of migration             
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APA

Anderson, U (2018). A Socio-Economic Responsibilities Of Women In Otukpo Clan In The 20th Century. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/a-socio-economic-responsibilities-of-women-in-otukpo-clan-in-the-20th-century-3257

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson. "A Socio-Economic Responsibilities Of Women In Otukpo Clan In The 20th Century" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/a-socio-economic-responsibilities-of-women-in-otukpo-clan-in-the-20th-century-3257 . Accessed 23 Apr. 2021.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson. "A Socio-Economic Responsibilities Of Women In Otukpo Clan In The 20th Century". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 23 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/a-socio-economic-responsibilities-of-women-in-otukpo-clan-in-the-20th-century-3257 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson. "A Socio-Economic Responsibilities Of Women In Otukpo Clan In The 20th Century" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed April 23, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/a-socio-economic-responsibilities-of-women-in-otukpo-clan-in-the-20th-century-3257