ANALYSIS OF FARMERS-PASTORALISTS CONFLICT IN WESTERN ZONE OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

MUHAMMAD GARBA 232 PAGES (38274 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

This study examined farmers-pastoralists conflicts in Western Zone of Bauchi State. Seventy- five arable farmers and 75 pastoralists were randomly and purposively selected respectively, in addition to 50 extension agents. Data were collected using questionnaires and were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and Spearman rho correlation. The results showed that 58.78% and 65.220% of both farmers and extension agents fell within the age brackets of 30-49 years. The results also indicated that 82.43% and 86.96% of farmers and extension agents were males, 74.32% of farmers-pastoralists had one form of education or the other and 30.64% of extension agents being Higher National Diploma holders. The study also revealed that 68.24% and 73.91% of farmers and extension agents reported the existence of conflict between farmers and herders in the study area respectively. The major causes of farmers-pastoralists’ conflicts include lack of well defined cattle route (54.05%), poor government attitudes (52.03%) and inadequate grazing reserves (51.35%) among others. Furthermore, chi-square analysis revealed that all conflict prevention and management strategies were significant at p<0.001 with the exception of judicial, military, police, local unions and traditional interventions in the study area. The result of Spearman rho correlation revealed that, conflict was related to age (r =-0.032, P< 0.001) and farming experience (r = -0.20, P< 0.01). The major constraints to conflict prevention and management include inadequate social infrastructures (91.30%), poverty (86.96%), and illiteracy (76.09%). This study recommends that, social infrastructures (grazing reserves, dams, veterinary clinics, etc) be made available to prevent conflicts between farmers and herders.

Title page ………………………………………………………………………ii
Declaration ………………………………………………………………………iii
Certification ………………………………………………………………………iv
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………v
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………viAbstract……………………………………………………………………………..viii
Table of contents……………………………………………………………………ix
List of tables………………………………………………………………………..xiv
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………xvii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  Introduction…………………………………………………………………1
1.1Background of the study…………………………………………………………1 
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………3
1.3 Justification of the study…………………………………………………….5
1.4 Objectives of the study………………………………………………………7
1.5 Definition of Related Concepts …………………………………………………7
1.5.1 Conflict  ………………………………………………………………………7
1.5.2 Conflict Prevention……………………………………………………………8
1.5.3 Crisis Management……………………………………………………………8
1.5.4 Conflict Management…………………………………………………………8
1.5.5 Peacemaking…………………………………………………………………..8
1.5.6 Conflict Termination…………………………………………………………..8
1.5.7 Conflict Resolution……………………………………………………………9
 1.5.8 Legal Perspective……………………………………………………………...9
1.5.9 Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)…………………………………….. ..9
1.5.10 Early Warning Signs (EWS)…………………………………………………10
1.1.11 Responsibility to Protect (R2P)…………………………………………….. 10
1.5.12 Ethnicity……………………………………………………………………..10
1.5.13 Livelihood……………………………………………………………………11

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature review………………………………………………………………...12
2.1 The Concept of Conflict………………………………………………………….12
2.2 Types of conflicts……………………………………………………………13
2.2.1 Farmer- pastoralist’ conflicts………………………………………………….14
2.2.2 Causes of farmer – pastoralist’ conflicts……………………………………....16

2.3 Conflict Interventions……………………………………………………………22
2.3.1 Conflict Prevention…………………………………………………………….23
2.3.2 Conflicts resolution ……………………………………………………………25
2.3.3 Demand-Driven Approach……………………………………………………..26
2.4 Early Warning Signs (EWSs)…………………………………………………….28
2.4.1 Political Indicators……………………………………………………………..29
2.4.2 Economic Indicators …………………………………………………………..30
2.4.3 Personal Security …………………………………………………………….30
2.4.4 Military Build-up and Expenditures …………………………………………...30
2.4.5 Social Indicators ……………………………………………………………..30
2.4.6 Environmental Indicators…………………………………………………….30
2.5 Pastoralism in Nigeria…………………………………………………………….31

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods…………………………………………………………...35
3.1 The Study Area…………………………………………………………………..35
3.2 Sampling Procedure………………………………………………………………35
3.3 Data Collection …………………………………………………………………..36
3.4 Analytical Technique……………………………………………………………..36
3.5 Scope and Limitation of the study……………………………………………….38

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results ………………………………………………………………………..39
4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics………………………………………………39
4.1.1 Age and Gender of the Respondents………………………………………39
4.1.2 Educational Status of the Respondents ……………………………………41
4.1.3 Respondents’ Farm Size and Herd Size……………………………………44
4.1.4 Respondent Distribution According to Household Size…………………..46
4.1.5 Marital status of the respondents…………………………………………..48
4.1.6 Occupation of the respondents…………………………………………….50
4.1.7 Respondents experience in farming and pastoralism………………………52
4.1.8 Respondents’ Purpose of Crop and Livestock Farming……………………54
4.1.9 Systems of Farming and Pastoralism………………………………………56
4.1.10 Types of crop cultivated and livestock kept……………………………...58
4.1.11 Adequacy and accessibility of stock route (burti)………………………..60
4.2 Production Indices…………………………………………………………..62
4.2.1 Source of Water for Household, Livestock, and Irrigation Needs………..62
4.2.2 Ways of Utilizing Source of Water……………………………………….64
4.2.3 Scarcity of Water and Farm Land………………………………………..66
4.2.4 Solution to Water Scarcity………………………………………………..68
4.2.5 Methods of Crop Residues Disposal and its Duration on the Farm Prior to Disposal………………………………………………………………………...70
4.2.6 Fencing of Crop Residues and Livestock Trespassing on it……………...72
4.2.7 Place where pastoralist kept their livestock, Received Payments, and Mode of 
Payments for Fertilizing Crop Farmers Farmland………………………………74
4.2.8 Place where Respondents Sales their Crops and Livestock………………76
4.2.9 Thefts on crop and livestock………………………………………………78
4.3 Nature of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts……………………………………..80
4.3.1 Occurrence of Conflicts…………………………………………………..80
4.3.2 Period of conflict happening and the frequency of conflict occurrence….82
4.3.2 Existence of warning Signs of Conflicts………………………………....84
4.3.3 Types of Warning Signals Noticed by the Respondents…………………86
4.3.4 Respondents’ Perception on the Causes of Farmer Pastoralist Conflicts………………………………………………………………………...88
4.3.5 Source of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts…………………………………...90
4.3.6 Respondents’ Perception on the Occurrence of Conflicts Other Than Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts……………………………………………………92
4.3.7 Respondents’ Perception on the Causes of Conflicts Other Than Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts……………………………………………………94
4.4.0 Consequences of Conflicts……………………………………………….96
4.4.1 Loss Incurred Due to Conflicts and Nature of Loss………………………96
4.4.2 Parts of Body Injured…………………………………………………….100
4.4.3 Quantity of property Lost Due to Conflicts………………………………102
4.4.4 Period of Time Respondents were prevented from Engaging on Activities Due to Conflict and Sustained Injury………………………………………….104
4.4.5 Category of People Affected by Conflict…………………………………106
4.4.6 Migration Due to Conflicts………………………………………………..108
4.4.7 Types of Help Rendered to Displace Victims……………………………..110
4.4.8 Effect of Conflicts on Livelihood…………………………………………113
4.4.9 Degree of Effect of Conflicts on Livelihood………………………………115
4.4.10 Spill over of Conflict to Neighbouring Communities and it Consequences……………………………………………………………………117
4.5 Conflicts Prevention and Resolution………………………………………...120
4.5.1 Efforts to Prevent Conflict…………………………………………………120
4.5.2 Roles of Extension Agents in Conflict Prevention and Management……...123
4.5.3 Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies……………………………125
4.5.3.1 Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies...125
4.5.3.2. Extension Agents Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies…………………………………………………………………………128
4.5.4 Effectiveness of Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies…………131
4.5.4.1 Extension Agents Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Resolution and Management Strategies…………………………………………131
4.5.4.2 Farmers-pastoralists’ perception on effectiveness of conflict resolution and management strategies………………………………………………………134
4.5.4.3 Test Statistics for Effectiveness of Conflict Resolution Strategies (Farmer-pastoralist)………………………………………………………………136
4.5.4 Respondents’ Perception on Conflict Situation ……………………………138
4.5.5 Extension Agents’ perception on constraints to Conflict Prevention and Management…………………………………………………………………….140
4.5.5.1 Respondents’ Personal View on the Proffered Solutions toward Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts…………………………………………………………………………142
4.5.6 Coping Strategies Used by Respondents during and After Conflicts……..144
4.5.6.1 Coping Strategies used by farmers during and after conflicts…………..144
4.5.6.2 Coping Strategies Used by Pastoralists during and After Conflicts…….146
4.5.6.3 Relationship between Socio-economic variables with conflict occurrence.148

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSIONS……………………………………………………………….150
5.1 Socio-economic Characteristics………………………………………………..150
5.1.1 Age and Gender of the Respondents………………………………………..150
5.1.2 Educational Status of the Respondents ……………………………………..151
5.1.3 Respondents’ Farm Size and Herd Size……………………………………...151
5.1.4 Respondent Distribution According to Household Size……………………..152
5.1.5 Marital status of the respondents……………………………………………..152
5.1.6 Occupation of the respondents……………………………………………….152
5.1.7 Respondents experience in farming and pastoralism…………………………153
5.1.8 Respondents’ Purpose of Crop and Livestock Farming………………………153
5.1.9 Systems of Farming and Pastoralism…………………………………………154
5.1.10 Types of crop cultivated and livestock kept…………………………………154
5.1.11 Adequacy and accessibility of stock route (burti)……………………………155
5.2 Production Indices……………………………………………………………….155
5.2.1 Source of Water for Household, Livestock, and Irrigation Needs…………….155
5.2.2 Ways of Utilizing Source of Water…………………………………………….156
5.2.3 Scarcity of Water and Farm Land…………………………………………….157
5.2.4 Solution to Water Scarcity…………………………………………………….157
5.2.5 Methods of Crop Residues Disposal and its Duration on the Farm Prior to Disposal……………………………………………………………………………..157
5.2.6 Fencing of Crop Residues and Livestock Trespassing on it…………………..158
5.2.7 Place where pastoralist kept their livestock, Received Payments, and Mode of Payments for Fertilizing Crop Farmers Farmland…………………………………..158
5.2.8 Place where Respondents Sales their Crops and Livestock…………………..159
5.2.9 Thefts on crop and livestock…………………………………………………..159
5.3 Nature of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts--------------------------------------------------160
5.3.1 Occurrence of Conflicts……………………………………………………….160
5.3.2 Period of conflict happening and the frequency of conflict occurrence…........161
5.3.2 Existence of warning Signs of Conflict ………………………………………161
5.3.3 Types of Warning Signals Noticed by the Respondents……………………...161
5.3.4 Respondents’ Perception on the Causes of Farmer Pastoralist Conflicts…………………………………………………………………………….162
5.3.5 Source of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts……………………………………….164
5.3.6 Respondents’ Perception on the Occurrence of Conflicts Other Than Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts………………………………………………………..164
5.3.7 Respondents’ Perception on the Causes of Conflicts Other Than Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts………………………………………………………..165
5.4.0 Consequences of Conflicts……………………………………………………165
5.4.1 Respondents Involvement in Farmer-Pastoralist Conflicts and time taken prior to normalcy……………………………………………………………...166
5.4.2 Loss Incurred Due to Conflicts and Nature of Loss…………………………167
5.4.3 Parts of Body Injured…………………………………………………………168
5.4.4 Quantity of property Lost Due to Conflict……………………………………166
5.4.5 Period of Time Respondents were prevented from Engaging on ActivitiesDue to Conflict and Sustained Injury ………………………………………………168
5.4.6 Category of People Affected by Conflict……………………………………..169
5.4.7 Migration Due to Conflicts……………………………………………………169.
4.4.8 Types of Help Rendered to Displace Victims………………………………...170
5.4.9 Effect of Conflicts on Livelihood………………………………………………171
5.4.10 Degree of Effect of Conflicts on Livelihood………………………………….172
5.4.11 Spill over of Conflict to Neighbouring Communities and it Consequences…………………………………………………………………………172
5.5 Conflicts Prevention and Resolution……………………………………………...174
5.5.1 Efforts to Prevent Conflict……………………………………………………...174
5.5.2 Roles of Extension Agents in Conflict Prevention and Management…………..174
5.5.3 Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies………………………………..175
5.5.3.1 Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies…….175
5.5.3.2. Extension Agents Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Prevention Strategies………………………………………………………………………………175
5.5.4 Effectiveness of Conflict Management and Resolution Strategies………………177
5.5.4.1 Extension Agents Perception on Effectiveness of Conflict Resolution and Management Strategies……………………………………………….177
5.5.4.2 Farmers-pastoralists’ perception on effectiveness of conflict resolution
and management strategies…………………………………………………………….178
5.5.4.3 Chi-square Test Statistics for Effectiveness of Conflict Resolution Strategies (Farmer-pastoralist)……………………………………………………………………178
5.5. Respondents’ Perception on Conflict Situation…………………………………..179
5.6 Constraints to Conflict Prevention and Management Extension Agents…………179
5.6.1 Respondents’ Personal View on the Proffered Solutions toward Farmer-Pastoralist Conflict……………………………………………………………………………….180
5.7 Coping Strategies Used by Respondents during and After Conflicts…………….180
5.7.1 Coping Strategies used by farmers during and after conflicts……………….. .181
5.7.2 Coping Strategies Used by Pastoralists during and After Conflicts…………..182
5.8   Relationship between Socio-economic variables with conflict occurrence…….181

CHAPTER SIX
6. 0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………183
6.1 Summary………………………………………………………………………....183
6.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….187
6.3 Recommendations………………………………………………………………187
 References …………………………………………………………………………189 
Farmer-pastoralists’ Questionnaire…………………………………………………196 
Extension agents’ Questionnaire……………………………………………………206
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APA

MUHAMMAD, G (2019). ANALYSIS OF FARMERS-PASTORALISTS CONFLICT IN WESTERN ZONE OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA. Afribary.com: Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-farmers-pastoralists-conflict-in-western-zone-of-bauchi-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

GARBA, MUHAMMAD. "ANALYSIS OF FARMERS-PASTORALISTS CONFLICT IN WESTERN ZONE OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 02 Nov. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-farmers-pastoralists-conflict-in-western-zone-of-bauchi-state-nigeria . Accessed 22 Nov. 2019.

MLA7

GARBA, MUHAMMAD. "ANALYSIS OF FARMERS-PASTORALISTS CONFLICT IN WESTERN ZONE OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 02 Nov. 2019. Web. 22 Nov. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-farmers-pastoralists-conflict-in-western-zone-of-bauchi-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

GARBA, MUHAMMAD. "ANALYSIS OF FARMERS-PASTORALISTS CONFLICT IN WESTERN ZONE OF BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed November 22, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-farmers-pastoralists-conflict-in-western-zone-of-bauchi-state-nigeria