APPLICATION OF PSYCHROPHYLIC ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Abasiama Akpan 50 PAGES (21812 WORDS) Seminar
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Psychrophilic enzymes are biocatalysts that control biochemical processes at low temperatures by either accelerating or decreasing the reaction rate. These enzymes are mainly obtained from microorganisms which inhabit cold environments and proliferate at low temperatures. The cold-loving organisms referred to as psychrophiles are adapted to the extreme cold conditions which resulted in changes in their biochemical machineries such as their enzymes. This resulted in certain characteristics of the psychrophilic enzymes such as thermolability, cold-activity, high catalytic potential at low temperatures and lots of other chemical, kinetic and thermodynamical properties. Consequently, the psychrophilic enzymes are highly applicable in various fields of biotechnology such as food and paper pulp production, biodetergents, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. This is due to their catalytic efficiency at cold conditions over their mesophilic and thermophilic homologues. There are great potentials of these enzymes in the future of biotechnology, but this would be accomplished through molecular modifications to overcome the challenges encountered in the production, purification and application of these enzymes in biotechnology. An improvement of the psychrophilic enzyme activities will result in a significant and robust use in many applications for human benefit.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction - - 1-6

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Psychrophilic enzymes and their properties - - - -10

2.1 Physical properties of psychrophilic enzymes - 10-11

2.2 Chemical properties of psychrophilic enzymes - 11-13

2.3 Kinetic and thermodynamical properties of psychrophilic enzymes - - 13-14

2.4 Comparison of the characteristics of psychrophilic enzymes with other mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. - -16


CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Applications of psychrophilic enzymes in biotechnology - - - 18-21

3.1 Food and drink technology - - - - - - - 21-23

3.2 Textile industries - - -23

3.3 Paper and pulp production - - - - - - - 23-24

3.4 Pharmaceutical industries - - - - - - - - 25

3.5 Chemical industries - - - - - - - - 26

3.5.1 Biodetergents - - - - - - - - 26-27

3.5.2 Cosmetics - - - - - - - - 27

3.6 Molecular biology and genetic engineering - - - - - 27-28

3.7 Environment, waste water management and biofuel production - - 29-30

3.8 Enhancement of psychrophilic enzyme-biotechnological performance through molecular modification - - - - - - - - - - 30-31

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Potential of psychrozymes in biotechnology/ future perspectives - - 34-35

4.1 Challenges in biotechnological applications of psychrophilic enzymes   -          -            38


REFERENCES - - - - - - - - - 40-45



LIST OF TABLES

Comparison of Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value of psychrozymes with other enzymes - - - - - - - - - 15

Comparison of optimum temperatures of some psychrozymes and their mesophilic and thermophilic homologues - - - - - - -   17

A summary of different fields of biotechnology and psychrophilic enzymes used     32-33

Major psychrophilic enzymes and their biotechnological potentials - -   36-37


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APA

Abasiama, A (2020). APPLICATION OF PSYCHROPHYLIC ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 02, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/application-of-psychrophylic-enzymes-in-biotechnology

MLA 8th

Akpan, Abasiama. "APPLICATION OF PSYCHROPHYLIC ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 16 Mar. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/application-of-psychrophylic-enzymes-in-biotechnology . Accessed 02 Apr. 2020.

MLA7

Akpan, Abasiama. "APPLICATION OF PSYCHROPHYLIC ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 16 Mar. 2020. Web. 02 Apr. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/application-of-psychrophylic-enzymes-in-biotechnology >.

Chicago

Akpan, Abasiama. "APPLICATION OF PSYCHROPHYLIC ENZYMES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed April 02, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/application-of-psychrophylic-enzymes-in-biotechnology