Aspect Of The Phonology Of Yukuben

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This research focuses on the phonology of Yukuben, a language spoken by about 25,000 speakers in Sabongida Yukuben of Takum Local Government Area in the east of Taraba State in Nigeria, and North West Province, Menchum division, west of Furu-Awa, near Nigeria border in Cameroon. In the absence of a population census, a rough estimate would put their population at over 500,000.
Yukuben is however a generally accepted term (oxonomy) for an area, an ethnic group and a language located mainly at the eastern edge of Nigeria (but also in the neighbouring part of Cameroon). The name Yukuben was derived from Jukun (the language of Takum) which serves as lingua franca in Taraba. The speakers call themselves Yukuben, and the language is locally called Uhumkiji.
Today, the Yukuben is widely spread across such states as Kaduna, Yola etc. in Nigeria and also in North West regions in Cameroon. The speakers are also found in every part of the country, and in many African countries such as Niger, Cameroon, to mention a few.
(Source: Lewis M. Paul (ed) 2009, “Yukuben a language of Nigeria”)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page………….…..……………………………………………..i
Certification…….……………………………………………………ii
Dedication…………..……………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgements….………………………………………………iv
List of Abbreviations…….………………………………………….vi
Table of Contents………….………………………………………..vii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0General Background…………………………….……………..1
1.1Historical Background…………………………………………1
1.2Socio Linguistic………………………………………………..3
1.2.0The Yukuben Speakers……………………………...…………3
1.2.1Population of the Yukubens…………………………...……….4
1.2.2Yukuben Dialects and Nomenclature………………….………5
1.3Socio Cultural Profile………………………………….………6
1.3.1Religion……………………………………………………….6
1.3.2Occupation…………………………………………………….7
1.3.3Marriage……………………………………………………….8
1.3.4Governance…………………………………………………….9
1.3.5Traditional and Festivals…………………………………….....9
1.4Genetic Classification of Yukuben………………………..….11
1.5Scope and Organisation of the study………………………....12
1.6Theoretical Framework……………………………………….13
1.6.1The Structure of Generative Phonology…………………..….14
1.7Data Collection……………………………………………….16
1.8Data Analysis…………………………………………………18

CHAPTER TWO
PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS IN YUKUBEN
2.0Introduction…………………………………………………..19
2.1Sound Inventory of Yukuben………………………………..20
2.1.1Consonants Segment in Yukuben…………………………….20
2.1.2Yukuben Consonant Chart……………………………………25
2.1.3Distribution of Consonant in Yukuben Features Used……….26
2.2Vowels Segment in Yukuben……………………………...…46
2.2.1Distribution of Vowels in Yukuben………………………….49
2.3Distinctive Features of Yukuben Sounds…………………….66
2.4Justification of the Features used..…………………..……….72
2.5Yukuben Tonal Inventory…………………………………….75
2.6Syllable Structure of Yukuben………………………………..79
2.7Segment Redundancy of Yukuben Sounds…………………..86

CHAPTER THREE
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN YUKUBEN
3.0Observed Introduction……………………………………….91
3.1.1Assimilation…………………………………………………..92
3.1.2Labialization………………………………………………….94
3.1.3Patalization…………………………………………………...96
3.1.4Vowel Harmony………………………………………………97
3.1.5Deletion……………………………………………………...100
3.1.6Nasalization…………………………………………………102

CHAPTER FOUR
SYLLABLE AND TONAL PROCESSES
4.0Introduction………………………………………………….104
4.1The Syllable Structure of Yukuben…………...…………….104
4.1.1Closed Syllable in Yukuben Language……………………..106
4.1.2Open Syllable in Yukuben Language……………………….106
4.2The Syllable in Yukuben……………………………………107
4.2.1Monosyllabic Words………………………………………..107
4.2.2Disyllabic Words……………………………………………109
4.2.3Trisyllabic Words…………………………………………..110
4.2.4Quadri-syllabic Words……………………………………..111
4.3Tonal Processes in Yukuben………………………………..111
4.4Tonal Pattern in Yukuben…………………………………..112
4.5Tonal Processes……………………………………………..118
4.5.1Tone Spreading……………………………………………...119

CHAPTER  FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation……………….121  
5.1Summary………………………...…………………………..121
5.2Conclusion………………………..…………………………123
5.4Recommendations…………………..……………………….123
5.5References…………………………..……………………….125

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF YUKUBEN
According to oral tradition, the Yukubens originated from Iden in the north neighbouring Cameroon. A large part moved down to their present location on the plains at the foot of some hills namely Kichieni, Sabo, Iya, Kehensin, Oluko, Kalakir and Ito during the British colonization. Since Cameroon was colonized by the French, there was a boundary that separated both countries and the people.
         Their oral history also has it that the Kuteb once tried to invade the Jukuns, but the Jukuns fought back and were victorious. Then, the Kuteb tried another plot on Yukuben sometime around 1992. Failingly, the Kuteb went back to fight the Jukun again, who eventually put an end to their will of invasion.
Oral tradition also has it that presently there is no king title in Takum since there is no proven superiority nor is there a conclusive agreement between the Jukun and Kuteb. King in Jukun is called Kuru and Okue in Kuteb. Though, history has it that the Jukuns once proposed the king be called ‘chief’ instead of both contradicting names, but the Kuteb claimed the name ‘chief’ was foreign and unacceptable.
However, oral tradition states that the Yukuben, being able to drive the Kuteb away afforded them the opportunity of owning their kingdom and having their king title as the “Udeng Uquen of Uhumkji land”.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). Aspect Of The Phonology Of Yukuben. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/aspect-of-the-phonology-of-yukuben-4343

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "Aspect Of The Phonology Of Yukuben" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/aspect-of-the-phonology-of-yukuben-4343. Accessed 26 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "Aspect Of The Phonology Of Yukuben". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 26 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/aspect-of-the-phonology-of-yukuben-4343 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "Aspect Of The Phonology Of Yukuben" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 26, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/aspect-of-the-phonology-of-yukuben-4343