The Uneme Noun Phrase

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It has been discovered that the minority languages in Nigeria are not being paid much attention to.  Therefore, this long essay will describe and present the structure of Noun Phrase in Uneme language and the transformational processes involving such noun phrases.  The processes and the examples are presented and analyzed using Government and Binding theory.
This research work is organized in such away that it will comprise five (5) chapters.
The first chapter presents the introductory part of the long essay, dealing mainly with the historical background and the socio cultural profile of the speakers of Uneme language.  Also, the genetic classification of the language, scope and organization of the study, method of data collection and analysis, and a brief review of the chosen frame work are presented in this chapter.
Chapter two presents a brief review of the sounds, tone and syllable patterns of Uneme language.  It will introduce and explicitly explain with examples in Uneme language the basic syntactic concepts such as, Phrase Structure Rule, Lexical Categories, Basic Word Order and Sentence Types found in the language under study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ………………………………………………………             i
Certification………………………………………………………         ii
Dedication... ……………………………………………………..          iii
Acknowledgements ……………………………………………..       iv-vi
List of abbreviations and symbols ………………………………     vii-viii
Table of contents ………………………………..……………..     ix- xiii

CHAPTER ONE:
1.0General Introduction ………………………………………         1
1.1Historical Background ….……………….………………..          3
1.2Sociocultural Profile  ………………….………………….          6
1.2.1Sociolinguistic background..……………………………   6
1.2.2.Culture ……………………………………………..….     7
1.2.3Festival …………………………………………………   8
1.2.4Religion ………………………………………………..    9
1.2.4.1 Christianity …………………………………….9
1.2.4.2 Islam …………………………………………...10
1.2.4.3 Traditional Religion ……………………………  11
1.2.5Marriage ………………………………………………..  12
1.2.6 Occupation ………………………………………………….. 12
1.3Genetic Classification of Uneme Language ………………… 13     
1.4Scope and Organization of the Study ……………………….. 15
1.5Theoretical Framework ……………………………………..  16
1.5.1X-bar Theory ………………………………………...   21
1.5.2Theta Theory …………………………………………   27
1.5.3Case Theory …………………………………………    29
1.5.4Bounding Theory ……………………………………   33
1.5.5Binding Theory ………………………………………  35
1.5.6Control Theory ………………………………………   38
1.5.7Government Theory …………………………………   38
1.6Data Collection …………………………………………….   40
1.7Data Analysis ………………………………………………   41

CHAPTER TWO:  Basic Phonological and syntactic concepts…42 
2.0Introduction ………………………………………………..   42
2.1Aspects of Phonology of Uneme Language ……………….   42
2.1.1Sound Inventory of Uneme Language ……………..     43
2.1.1.1Consonant of Uneme Language………..  43
 2.1.1.2Vowel of Uneme Language ……………….45
2.1.2Description of Uneme Language Sounds …...…………. 47
2.1.2.1Consonant………………………………….47
2.1.2.2 Distribution of vowels in Uneme Language..58
2.1.3Tone Inventory in Uneme Language ……………………62
2.1.4Syllable Structure of Uneme Language …………………66
2.2Syntax of Uneme Language ………………………………….. 70
2.2.1Phrase Structure Rule (PSR) ………………………….. 70
2.2.2Phrase Marker ………………………………………… 73
2.2.3 Lexical Categories in Uneme Language ………………  74
2.2.3.1Nouns ……………………………………. 75
2.2.3.2Pronouns …………………………………. 80
2.2.3.3 Verbs ……………………………………..  82
2.2.3.4Adverbs …………………………………..  83
2.2.3.5Adjectives ………………………………..  83
2.2.3.6Prepositions ……………………………...  84
2.2.3.7Conjunctions …………………………….   85
2.2.4Phrasal Categories …………………………………….   85
2.2.4.1Noun Phrase …………………………….    86
2.2.4.2Verb Phrase …………………………….     90
2.2.4.3Adjectives Phrase ………………………..   93
2.2.4.4Prepositional Phrase ……………………...   96
2.2.5Basic Word Order ………. …………………………….  98
2.2.6Sentence Types ………………………………………… 101
2.2.5.1Simple Sentence …………………………   102
2.2.6.2Compound Sentence …………………..      105
2.2.6.3Complex Sentence ……………………….   107

CHAPTER THREE The Noun Phrase …………………………     110
3.0Introduction …………………………………………………..   110
3.1Noun Phrase………………………………..…………………   110
3.2Forms of Noun Phrase (NP) …………….……………………  111
3.2.1Determiners …..……………………………………….. 112
3.2.2Adjectives ……………………………………………   113
3.3The Head Noun ……………………………………………… 114
3.4Position of Noun within NP …………………………………. 114
3.4.1Modification of NP by Adjective ……………………..  115
3.4.2Modification of NP by Determiners …………………..117
3.4.3 Modification of NP by Preposition ……………………120
3.5 Function of NP ………………………………………………..   123
3.5.1NP as Subject of the Sentence ……………………….. 124
3.5.2NP as Object of the Sentence ………………………..  126
3.5.3. NP as Indirect Object of the Sentence ……………….  130
3.5.4 NP as a Compliment of Preposition ………………….. 133

CHAPTER FOUR: Transformational Processes  
4.0Introduction …………………………………………………. 136
4.1Transformational Rule ………………………………………. 136
4.2Transformation Processes in Uneme Language …………….. 142
4.2.1Focus Construction …………………………………... 143
4.2.2Relativization ………………………………………… 154
4.2.3Reflexivization ………………………………………   160
4.2.4Question Formation …………………………………    164

CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.0Introduction …………………………………………………  178
5.1Summary ……………………………………………………  178
5.2Conclusion ………………………………………………….  180
5.3Recommendation …………………………………………… 181
REFERENCES …………………………………………………… 182
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
This research work is based on the language called Uneme language spoken in Edo State.  This work will focus on the aspects of Uneme Noun Phrase. The term Noun Phrase forms an important aspect of syntax.
Syntax is a branch of linguistics, derived from ancient Greek ‘SYN’ and ‘TAX’. SYN mean ‘Together’ while TAX means ‘Arrangement’.  Syntax is the study of the arrangement of words to form sentences.  Different linguist has defined syntax in different ways:
Talleman (2005) Defines syntax as the study of syntactic property of language.  He sees syntax as sentence construction, that is, how words are put together to make phrases or sentences.
Akmajian (2004) sees syntax as a sub-field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of sentences and the relationship among the internal parts.
Ladeforged (1997) says that syntax is concerned with the way words are combined to form sentences.
Syntax can be hierarchically structured from the larger to the smallest (Sentence------Clause-----Phrase -----Word). Sanusi (1996) says, in the systemic analysis, a sentence is ranked the highest, consisting of one or more clauses.
The focus of this research will be on the aspects of   Noun Phrase of Uneme language. A phrase is a sequence of words that can function as a constituent in the structure of sentences.  There are different types of phrasal categories, these are; Noun Phrase, Verb Phrase, Prepositional Phrase, Adjective Phrase and Adverbial Phrase. A Noun Phrase is headed by a noun and so applicable to others which are named after the lexical categories.
This project work will serve as a priority and a means of developing Uneme language and to save guard it from going into extinction.  It will suit the desires of those that want the language as a means of communication even in schools and in the community.

Historical Background
According to oral tradition, the Uneme language speakers are found in the northern part of Edo State.  An informant claimed that speakers of the language can be found in two areas in Edo State, these areas are Akoko-Edo and Etsako North.  Edo state is found in the south eastern part of Nigeria.
Hakeem (2003:4) says that the history of Uneme people can be traced to the core area of the Nok cultural zone located in the North eastern part of Niger-Benue confluence.  The area represents the ancestral home land of not only Uneme people but also of related sub-ethnic groups which have come to be described as the Edoid.
Uneme people are migrants from Benin.  They arrived Benin area during king Ogiso Ere’s era and their first settlement was on the outskirt of Benin City.  The Uneme people moved to Benin in the tenth century and later left because of a problem that arises as a result of Oba shift between two brothers in the royal house or palace of Benin kingdom.  The crises were so tense that everybody from Uneme community had to leave.  Their mode of migration from Benin in 1370 AD was in two phases; The first major phase of the migrant moved northwards from Benin, settling in different territories between 1370 and late 1370.  Some of the notable places they headed to are Obadan in the present Edo state and Agbede in the Etsako west area of the present northern Edo state, others are Ogbomeze (Imiava) in the Etsako central area of the present northern Edo state and Okene in Ebira community of the present Kogi State.
The migration of Uneme people experience a split which makes them to move in two different direction, one to Akoko-Edo (the present northern Edo-state) and other to Oghomeze in Etsako.  At the time of their staying in Akoko-Edo, they established three other Uneme communities in different location within Akoko-Edo namely Uneme Aki-Osu in the early 1400s, Uneme Erhurm and Uneme Ekped.
According to the language informant, he claims that, people who speak Uneme are Uzanu, Anegbete, Udochi and Ologua who are the latter of Uneme community in the 1830s.
From history, we are aware that the listed Uneme community are named after children of the same father and mother which latter developed to different community.  Each of them developed to a large community that now lives as a town on their own.  There was a conflict that broke out between Uzanu and Anegbete which led to a war and brought about parting between Uzanu and Anegbete whereby we have Uzanu in Etsako East and Anegbete in Etsako central.  During this war, Uzanu was having upper hand, and this makes the Anegbete to seek the assistance of Nupe people in Bida.  The Nupe people (warriors) came but asking the Oriola who is the prime minister of Anegbete to divide the kingdom of Anegbete into two and give them.  Oriole made them to understand that they are only here for war and not to share kingdom so, they should mind their business and face the Uzanu’s.  The Uzanu’s were captured by the Nupe warriors and later came to invade the Anegbete and the whole of Etsako.
Further more, Hakeem (2003:7) pointed out that the second major phase of the Uneme’s migration from Benin in 1370 AD witnessed the movement of the affected people eastwards in Niger-river, unlike the first group that moved northwards.  Members of the second group were few in number, and they passed through fewer territories where they settle down briefly before they finally established their permanent home in the Awka area of Igboland in the present Anambra State in 1380’s and 1370’s.
The total population of the Uneme language speakers is estimated to be 19800 (year 2000 estimation of internet) and the alternative names with which the language is called are Ileme, Ineme and Uleme but the standard version is Uneme as been called by the speakers.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). The Uneme Noun Phrase. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-uneme-noun-phrase-1519

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "The Uneme Noun Phrase" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-uneme-noun-phrase-1519. Accessed 27 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "The Uneme Noun Phrase". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 27 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-uneme-noun-phrase-1519 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "The Uneme Noun Phrase" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 27, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-uneme-noun-phrase-1519