Studies on Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) Seed Oil

AYOMIPOSI MOSES 57 PAGES (11013 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT


The need for effective and efficient means of oil extraction has been a concern in recent time. Hence, this study aimed at the oil extraction from Moringa oleifera seeds using the Microwave-Assisted extraction method. The extraction process was modeled using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Also, the evaluation of Moringa oleifera oil as a good feedstock for biodiesel production was carried out.


Oil was extracted from the M. oleifera seed kernel using Microwave-Assisted method and n-hexane as solvent of extraction. D-optimal design of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to generate 22 experiments for the oil extraction studies. Factors considered for the design were extraction time (4 – 12 min), power (180 – 540 W) and solute-solvent ratio (1:10 – 1:30). The modeling and optimization studies on the oil extraction were carried out using RSM. Properties of the oil extracted were determined using methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC).


The results showed that both RSM model had R2 value of 0.96. RSM predicted an optimum oil yield of 43.60% at optimal condition of 8 min, 540 W and solute-solvent ratio of 1:30. The acid value, specific gravity, iodine value, free fatty acid, refractive index, viscosity, peroxide value, saponification value and cetane number were determined as 3.03 mg/KOH/g; 0.874; 65.89 g I2/100; 1.536 mg/KOH/g; 1.4466; 13.0125 cSt; 8.4 meq/kg; 150.49 mgKOH/g oil and 64.16, respectively.


Thus, the results of this study demonstrated that M. oleifera is a high-yielding oil plant and the oil could serve as feedstock for biodiesel production.


 


 


 


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TITLE PAGE.…………………………………………………...…………………………….…......i


LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.. ii


CERTIFICATION.. iii


DEDICATION.. iv


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. v


ABSTRACT.. vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii


LIST OF TABLES. xii


LIST OF FIGURES. xiii


LIST OF PLATES. xiv


CHAPTER ONE.. 1


INTRODUCTION.. 1


1.1 Background Information. 1


1.1.1 Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) 1


1.1.2 Microwave-Assisted Method of Extraction. 2


1.1.3 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 3


1.2 Scope of the Study. 4


1.3 Objectives of the Study. 4


1.4 Justification for the Study. 4


CHAPTER TWO.. 5


LITERATURE REVIEW... 5


2.1 Overview.. 5


2.1.1  Wet Rendering Method of Extraction. 5


2.1.2 Mechanical Press Method of Extraction. 5


2.1.3 Solvent Extraction Method. 6


2.2 Moringa oleifera. 6


2.2.1 Moringa oleifera Seed 7


2.2.2 Moringa oleifera Seed \Oil 10


2.2.3 Moringa oleifera oil: a potential source of biodiesel 11


2.3 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) 13


2.3.1 Theory and Principle of Microwave heating. 13


2.2.2 Advantages and limitation of Microwave assisted extraction. 17


2.4 Physico-chemical Analysis of the Seed Oil 17


2.4.1 Viscosity. 17


2.4.2 Specific Gravity. 17


2.4.3 Density 17


2.4.4 Moisture Content 18


2.4.5 Refractive Index. 18


2.4.6 Acid Value. 18


2.4.7 Saponification Value. 18


2.4.8 Iodine Value. 18


2.4.9 Peroxide Value. 19


2.4.10 Cetane Number. 19


2.5 Experimental Design. 20


2.5.1 D-Optimal Design. 20


2.5.2 Response Surface Methodology (RSM) 20


CHAPTER THREE.. 21


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 21


3.1 Sample Collection and Preparation. 22


3.1.1 Drying. 22


3.1.2 Milling. 22


3.1.3 Design of Experiment 22


3.2 Extraction of the Oil 25


3.2.1 Reagents. 25


3.2.2 Equipment 25


3.2.3 Oil Extraction Procedure. 25


3.3 Analysis of the Physicochemical Properties of the Oil extracted. 27


3.3.1 Specific Gravity Test 27


3.3.2 Refractive Index Test 27


3.3.3 Viscosity Test 27


3.3.4 Moisture Content Test 28


3.3.5 Free Fatty Acid Value (FFA) 28


3.3.6 Iodine Value Test (Wij’s method) 28


3.3.7 Saponification Value (S.V.) Test 29


3.3.8 Acid Value Test 29


3.3.9 Peroxide Value Test 29


3.3.10 Cetane Number (CN) 30


3.3.11 Mean Molecular Mass. 30


3.3.12 High Heating Value (HHV) 30


3.3.13 American Petroleum Index (API) 30


3.3.14 Diesel Index. 31


3.3.15 Aniline Point 31


CHAPTER FOUR.. 32


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 32


4.1: Modelling of the Design of the Extraction of the Moringa Seed oil 32


4.2 Optimization of the Extracted Moringa Seed Oil 44


4.3 Physiochemical Properties of the Extracted Moringa Seed oil 46


CHAPTER FIVE.. 48


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 48


5.1 Conclusions. 48


5.2 Recommendation. 49


REFERENCES. 50


 


 


LIST OF TABLES


Table 3.1:       Factors and their levels for D-optimal design ------------------------------------- 23


Table 3.2:       Three-Level Factor D-Optimal Design---------------------------------------------24


Table 4.1:       Observed oil yield at various runs conducted by varying the parameter-------35


Table 4.2:       Actual Values and Predicted Values by RSM ------------------------------------36


Table 4.3:       Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of regression equation for Response Surface   Quadratic model -----------------------------------------------------------------------37


Table 4.4:       Regression Coefficients and Significance of Response Surface


Quadratic ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 38   


Table 4.5:       Physicochemical properties of the Moringa seed oil ---------------------------- 47


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 2.1:     Representation of the two heating modes: (a) by convection and (b)


                        by microwave energy (from Neas and Collins, 1988) ----------------------------16


Figure 4.1:     Plot of Predicted Oil Yield against Actual Oil Yield -----------------------------40


Figure 4.2:      Contour and 3-D view of MOSO (Moringa Seed oil) of Yield, Power


and Time at Solute/solvent Ratio of 1:10 ------------------------------------------41


Figure 4.3:      Contour and 3-D view of MOSO (Moringa Seed oil) of Yield, Power


                        and Time at Solute/solvent Ratio of 1:20 ------------------------------------------42


Figure 4.4:      Contour and 3-D view of MOSO (Moringa Seed oil) of Yield, Power


                        and Time at Solute/solvent Ratio of 1:30 ------------------------------------------43


Figure 4.5:     Predicted Optimal Yield by RSM ----------------------------------------------------45


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


LIST OF PLATES


Plate 2.1:        Moringa oleifera (a) Dried pods (b) Seed kernel with husks


(c) Seed kernel without husk -------------------------------------------------------- 9


Plate 3.1:        Set up of the Microwave Assisted Extraction ------------------------------------ 26


Plate 4.1:        Extracted Moringa Seed Oil -------------------------------------------------------- 33


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APA

AYOMIPOSI, M (2019). Studies on Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) Seed Oil. Afribary.com: Retrieved September 18, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/b-sc-thesis-moses-1

MLA 8th

MOSES, AYOMIPOSI. "Studies on Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) Seed Oil" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 26 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/b-sc-thesis-moses-1 . Accessed 18 Sep. 2019.

MLA7

MOSES, AYOMIPOSI. "Studies on Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) Seed Oil". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 26 Aug. 2019. Web. 18 Sep. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/b-sc-thesis-moses-1 >.

Chicago

MOSES, AYOMIPOSI. "Studies on Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera) Seed Oil" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed September 18, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/b-sc-thesis-moses-1