CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OIL FROM WASTE PLANT MATERIALS FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL

CHIBUEZE NWOSU Nwosu Chibueze Ike 33 PAGES (6699 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Oil obtained from orange peels and velvet tamarind nut by solvent extraction (n-hexane and acetone) using the soxhlet extractor were investigated as feedstock’s to determine some of the suitable parameters such as iodine value, saponification value, specific gravity, density, acid value and free fatty acid value, and their percentage yield that are suitable for biodiesel production. The density of orange and tamarind oil were found to be 0.9326g/cm3 and 0.8541g/cm3 respectively, their acid values were 19.81gNaOH for orange oil and 18.93gNaOH for velvet tamarind oil. The degree of unsaturation of both oils as determined by their iodine values were; 10.47gI2/100g for orange oil and 5.39gI2/100g for velvet tamarind oil. The viscosities of the oil were 11.29mPa.s and 26.55mPa.s for orange and velvet tamarind oil respectively. The various values obtained were compared with specifications of ASTM D6751 standard and established that the oil obtained from orange peels and velvet tamarind nuts could be used as alternative to/or blended with petro diesel. 

Keywords: Biodiesel, Orange peel, Velvet Tamarind nut, n-hexane, Acetone. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

ABSTRACT iii

TABLE OF CONTENT iv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1

BRIEF HISTORY OF BIODIESEL 2

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 2

SCOPE OF STUDY 3

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3

CHAPTER TWO: 0 LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 WHAT IS BIODIESEL 4

2.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF BIODIESEL 4-5

2.1.2 BIODIESEL ATTRIBUTES 5

2.1.3 BIODEGRADABILITY 5-6

2.1.4 FLASHPOINT 6

2.1.5 HEALTH EFFECTS 6-7

2.1.6 EMISSIONS REDUCTION 7-8

2.1.7 LUBRICITY 8

2.1.8 VISCOSITY 8-9

2.1.9 CLOUD POINT AND POUR POINT 9-10

2.2.0 THE CETANE NUMBER 10

2.2.1 DENSITY 10-11

2.2.2 ACID NUMBER AND FREE FATTY ACID 11

2.2.3 IODINE NUMBER 11-12

2.2.4 ORANGE OIL 12

2.2.5 HAZARDS OF ORANGE OIL 12

2.2.6 USES OF ORANGE OIL 13

2.2.7 VELVET TAMARIND OIL 13

2.2.8 USES OF VELVET TAMARIND OIL 14

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS 15

3.1 MATERIALS 15-16

3.2 METHODS 16

3.2.1 CHARACTERISATION PROCEDURE FOR ORANGE OIL 16

3.2.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY 16

3.2.3 ACID VALUE OR FREE FATTY ACID (FFA) 17

3.2.4 IODINE VALUE 17

3.2.5 SAPONIFICATION VALUE 18

3.2.6 VISCOSITY 18

3.2.7 CHARACTERISATION PROCEDURE FOR THE EXTRACTED VELVET TAMARIND OIL 19

3.2.8 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY 19

3.2.9 ACID VALUE OF FREE FATTY ACID (FFA) 20

3.3.0 IODINE VALUE 20

3.3.1 SAPONIFICATION VALUE 21

3.3.2 VISCOSITY 21

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 22

4.1 RESULTS 22

4.2 DISCUSSION 24-25

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 26

5.1 RECOMMENDATION 26

5.2 CONCLUSION 26

REFERENCES 28-29

APPENDIX

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APA

CHIBUEZE, N (2020). CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OIL FROM WASTE PLANT MATERIALS FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 04, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-non-edible-oil-from-waste-plant-materials-for-producing-biodiesel

MLA 8th

NWOSU, CHIBUEZE. "CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OIL FROM WASTE PLANT MATERIALS FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Jun. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-non-edible-oil-from-waste-plant-materials-for-producing-biodiesel . Accessed 04 Dec. 2020.

MLA7

NWOSU, CHIBUEZE. "CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OIL FROM WASTE PLANT MATERIALS FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Jun. 2020. Web. 04 Dec. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-non-edible-oil-from-waste-plant-materials-for-producing-biodiesel >.

Chicago

NWOSU, CHIBUEZE. "CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OIL FROM WASTE PLANT MATERIALS FOR PRODUCING BIODIESEL" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed December 04, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-non-edible-oil-from-waste-plant-materials-for-producing-biodiesel