Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Text Structure Background Knowledge in Bunia Secondary Schools, Ituri D R Congo

ABSTRACT Product oriented approach to reading which assumes meaning exists in the text itself is unproductive in terms of delivering an efficient comprehension of the text because it fails to consider students‘ schemata in reading comprehension process. This omission raises the problem of students‘ poor performance in reading and undermines their reading skill development. This research has raised the problem of the omission of students‘ background knowledge in the teaching of reading comprehension in Bunia secondary schools, Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The research poised itself to demonstrate that the background knowledge of text structure has positive effects on the students‘ comprehension of a text because reading is an interactive process that goes between the reader‘s prior knowledge and the text. The study was conducted via an experimental design. Intervention was conducted in Bunia secondary schools whereby experimental teaching took place. Students‘ awareness of text structure and rate of understanding was gauged before and after intervention. Moreover, comprehension lessons were attended by the researcher. Lesson attendance revealed that Bunia secondary school teachers use a product-oriented approach to reading comprehension teaching. This approach considers understanding the product of the text and leads to students‘ poor performance in reading because no linkage is made between the students‘ prior knowledge and the textual material. The present research found that background knowledge of the text structures has positive effects on the reading comprehension of students. It enhances comprehension rate of students, optimizes comprehension speed, reduces response time, boosts response accuracy, helps students make prediction and concentrate on the unknown, develops the discernment skill, and increases students‘ ability to assess narratives by using text structures indicators(signal words). The study made the following recommendations: pre-reading activities to awaken students‘ background knowledge of text structures, textbook structure renovation, and incorporation of text structures in reading comprehension instructions. In conclusion, students‘ awareness of text structures is crucial for efficient understanding of texts.

TABLE OFCONTENTS

DECLARATION.......................................................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL ................................................................................................................................................ ii

DEDICATION............................................................................................................................................ iii

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................................ ix

CHAPTER ONE .....................................................................................................................................- 1 -

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND...........................................................................................- 1 -

1.0 Introduction...............................................................................................................................- 1 -

1.1 Background to the study ...........................................................................................................- 1 -

1.1.1 Historical background...............................................................................................................- 1 -

1.1.2 Theoretical perspectives...................................................................................................................- 3 -

1.1.3 Conceptual perspective .............................................................................................................- 6 -

1.1.4 Contextual perspective..............................................................................................................- 8 -

1.2 Statement of the problem..........................................................................................................- 8 -

1.3 Purpose of the study..................................................................................................................- 9 -

1.4 Research objectives...................................................................................................................- 9 -

1.5 Research questions..................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.6 Hypothesis...............................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.7 Scope of the study...................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.7.1 Geographical scope.................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.7.2 Content scope..........................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.7.3 Time scope ..............................................................................................................................- 10 -

1.7.4 Theoretical scope ....................................................................................................................- 11 -

1.8 Significance of the study.........................................................................................................- 11 -

vi

CHAPTER TWO ..................................................................................................................................- 12 -

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................................- 12 -

2.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................- 12 -

2.1 Theoretical review ..................................................................................................................- 12 -

2.2 Conceptual framework............................................................................................................- 13 -

2.3 Related Literature....................................................................................................................- 14 -

2.3.1 Reading as a process...............................................................................................................- 14 -

2.3.2 Schema theory and its relevance in education ........................................................................- 15 -

2.3.3 The role of Background knowledge in reading comprehension .............................................- 17 -

2.3.4 Approaches to reading comprehension ...................................................................................- 18 -

2.3.5 Reading comprehension strategies..........................................................................................- 19 -

2.3.6 Awareness of text structures...................................................................................................- 22 -

2.3.7 The Text Structures.................................................................................................................- 24 -

2.3.8 The narrative structure ............................................................................................................- 25 -

2.3.9 How to analyse a narrative structure.......................................................................................- 26 -

2.3.10 How to teach expository text structure ...................................................................................- 27 -

2.4 Gaps identified in the literature...............................................................................................- 29 -

CHAPTER THREE..............................................................................................................................- 30 -

METHODOLOGY ...............................................................................................................................- 30 -

3.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................- 30 -

3.1 Research design ......................................................................................................................- 30 -

3.2 Target population ....................................................................................................................- 31 -

3.3 Sample Size.............................................................................................................................- 31 -

3.4 Sampling Strategy...................................................................................................................- 33 -

3.5 Data collection Instruments ....................................................................................................- 33 -

3.5.1 Testing.....................................................................................................................................- 34 -

vii

3.5.2 Intervention.............................................................................................................................- 34 -

3.5.3 Post-intervention test ..............................................................................................................- 35 -

3.5.4 Questionnaire ..........................................................................................................................- 35 -

3.5.5 Observation.............................................................................................................................- 35 -

3.5.6 Review of set textbooks..........................................................................................................- 36 -

3.6 Data quality control.................................................................................................................- 36 -

3.7 Validity ...................................................................................................................................- 36 -

3.8 Reliability................................................................................................................................- 36 -

3.9 Procedure ................................................................................................................................- 36 -

3.10 Data Analysis..........................................................................................................................- 37 -

3.11 Ethical consideration...............................................................................................................- 37 -

3.12 Limitations of the study ..........................................................................................................- 37 -

CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................................................- 39 -

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS ................................................................- 39 -

4.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................- 39 -

4.1 Primary data ............................................................................................................................- 39 -

4.1.1 Pre-test ....................................................................................................................................- 39 -

4.1.2 Intervention.............................................................................................................................- 44 -

4.1.3 Post-test...................................................................................................................................- 49 -

4.2 Secondary data ........................................................................................................................- 54 -

4.2.1 Questionnaire results...............................................................................................................- 54 -

4.2.2 Lesson attendance outcomes...................................................................................................- 58 -

4.2.3 Text-books used in Bunia secondary schools .........................................................................- 59 -

4.3 Findings...................................................................................................................................- 60 -

4.3.1 What is the students‘ level of awareness of text structures in Bunia secondary schools? ......- 61 -

viii

4.3.2 What are the effects of background knowledge of text structures on reading comprehension of

students in Bunia secondary schools?.....................................................................................................- 61 -

4.3.3 What are the approaches used in teaching reading comprehension in Bunia secondary schools? -

66 -

4.3.4 How should text structures be incorporated in reading comprehension curriculum? .............- 67 -

CHAPTER FIVE ..................................................................................................................................- 69 -

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ...................................................- 69 -

5.0 Introduction.............................................................................................................................- 69 -

5.1 Discussion of the findings.......................................................................................................- 69 -

5.2 Recommendations...................................................................................................................- 70 -

5.2.1 To teachers of English in Bunia secondary schools:...............................................................- 70 -

5.2.2 To students..............................................................................................................................- 71 -

5.2.3 To the government of the D R Congo.....................................................................................- 72 -

5.3 Areas for further research .......................................................................................................- 72 -

5.4 Conclusions.............................................................................................................................- 73 -

REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................- 76 -

APPENDICES.......................................................................................................................................- 83 -

APPENDIX I.........................................................................................................................................- 83 -

APPENDIX II........................................................................................................................................- 84 -

APPENDIX III. .....................................................................................................................................- 85 -

APPENDIX IV. .....................................................................................................................................- 86 -

APPENDIX V........................................................................................................................................- 87 -

APPENDIX VI ......................................................................................................................................- 89 -

APPENDIX VII.....................................................................................................................................- 90 -



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APA

UNEGA, C (2022). Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Text Structure Background Knowledge in Bunia Secondary Schools, Ituri D R Congo. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/enhancing-reading-comprehension-through-text-structure-background-knowledge-in-bunia-secondary-schools-ituri-d-r-congo

MLA 8th

UNEGA, CWINYA’AY "Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Text Structure Background Knowledge in Bunia Secondary Schools, Ituri D R Congo" Afribary. Afribary, 09 Oct. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/enhancing-reading-comprehension-through-text-structure-background-knowledge-in-bunia-secondary-schools-ituri-d-r-congo. Accessed 20 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

UNEGA, CWINYA’AY . "Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Text Structure Background Knowledge in Bunia Secondary Schools, Ituri D R Congo". Afribary, Afribary, 09 Oct. 2022. Web. 20 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/enhancing-reading-comprehension-through-text-structure-background-knowledge-in-bunia-secondary-schools-ituri-d-r-congo >.

Chicago

UNEGA, CWINYA’AY . "Enhancing Reading Comprehension Through Text Structure Background Knowledge in Bunia Secondary Schools, Ituri D R Congo" Afribary (2022). Accessed July 20, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/enhancing-reading-comprehension-through-text-structure-background-knowledge-in-bunia-secondary-schools-ituri-d-r-congo