Plant Physiology and Crop Ecology Research Papers/Topics

The Cell Membrane of a Novel Rhizobium phaseoli Strain Is the Crucial Target for Aluminium Toxicity and Tolerance

Abstract Soils with low pH and high aluminium (Al) contamination restrict common bean production, mainly due to adverse effects on rhizobia. We isolated a novel rhizobium strain, B3, from Kenyan soil which is more tolerant to Al stress than the widely used commercial strain CIAT899. B3 was resistant to 50 µM Al and recovered from 100 µM Al stress, while CIAT899 did not. Calcein labeling showed that less Al binds to the B3 membranes and less ATP and mScarlet-1 protein, a cytoplasmic marker,...

Biomass and productivity of seagrasses in Africa

Abstract : There is growing interest in carbon stocks and flows in seagrass ecosystems, but recent global reviews suggest a paucity of studies from Africa. This paper reviews work on seagrass productivity, biomass and sediment carbon in Africa. Most work was conducted in East Africa with a major geographical gap in West Africa. The mean above-ground, below-ground and total biomasses from all studies were 174.4, 474.6 and 514 g DW m-2, respectively with a global range of 461–738 g DW m-2. M...

Plant Parasitic Nematodes and Food Security In Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region beset with challenges, not least its ability to feed itself. Low agricultural productivity, exploding populations, and escalating urbanization have led to declining per capita food availability. In order to reverse this trend, crop production systems must intensify, which brings with it an elevated threat from pests and diseases, including plant-parasitic nematodes. A holistic systems approach to pest management recognizes disciplinary integrati...

Investigation of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) severity and cropping systems mapping in agro-ecological maize systems in Bomet, Kenya utilizing RapidEye and Landsat-8 Imagery.

Abstract: Spatiotemporal information on crops and cropping systems can provide useful insights into disease outbreak mechanisms in croplands. In September 2011, a severe outbreak of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) disease was reported in Bomet County, Kenya. We aimed to detect severely MLN-infected fields and discriminate mono, inter, and continuous maize cropping systems. We collected in-situ MLN severity observations and acquired multi-date and multi-sensor data viz., RapidEye (RE), Sentinel-1...

An assessment of the invasive alien tree, Robinia pseudoacacia canopy traits and its effect on grassland microclimates and subsequent arthropod assemblages

Abstract: Invasive alien trees transform landscapes and subsequent ecosystem function. For grassland ecosystems, fragmentation following invasion by alien woody species is of concern. In this study, we examined how an invasive alien tree, Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) impacts grassland microclimates and the subsequent assemblages of endemic arthropods. The phenological trajectory of R. pseudoacacia, temperature and light intensity, as well as arthropod abundances in both invaded and uni...

Chemo-Ecological Insights into the Use of the Non-Host Plant Vegetable Black-Jack to Protect Two Susceptible Solanaceous Crops from Root-Knot Nematode Parasitism

Abstract: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) develop through three major stages in their life cycle: hatching, infection, and reproduction. Interruption of any of these stages can affect their growth and survival. We used screenhouse pot experiments, laboratory in vitro hatching and mortality assays, and chemical analysis to test the hypothesis that the non-host Asteraceae plant vegetable black-jack (Bidens pilosa) suppresses infection of the PPN Meloidogyne incognita in two susceptible Solana...

Shoot Epicatechin and Epigallocatechin Contents Respond to Water Stress in Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the association of tea catechins to water stress in tea, with the objective of determining their suitability as indicators for predicting drought tolerance in tea (Camellia sinensis). The study consisted of six tea clones (BBK 35, TRFK 6/8, TRFK 76/1, TRFK 395/2, TRFK 31/30, and TRFK 311/287) and four levels of soil water content (38, 30, 22, and 14% v/v), which were arranged in a complete randomized design and replicated 3 times. The treatm...

255-Article Text-717-1-10-20190103

Salinity is a major problem directly affecting the ecological balance and the development of agriculture in the Mediterranean basin, particularly North Africa. This phenomenon is considered as the most important abiotic factor limiting crops growth and productivity, degrading and polluting soils in arid and semi-arid. In order to study the influence of salinity, on the physiological parameters and to assess the potential of adaptation of the olive tree in a saline environment, three parcels c...