Chemical Engineering Research Papers/Topics

Simulation, Modeling and Control for Crude Distillation Unit

ABSTRACT  The control of the distillation unit in Khartoum refinery, by keeping the operating conditions in certain limits is essential to adjust disturbances which lead to deviation from the desired values. The aim of this work is to select the suitable controller and the appropriate tuning method. The control loops are designed depending upon controllability and performance. These loops were Control of furnace temperature, Control of interface level at reflux drum, Control of level at stri...

Modeling Bioremediation Of A Petroleum Contaminated Soil Enhanced With Npk Fertilizer And Animal/Plant Derived Organic Manure

ABSTRACT In this study, the potential effects of animal derived organic manure (cow dung, poultry droppings), saw dust and NPK fertilizer on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil was investigated. The rate of biodegradation was studied for the period of 10 weeks under laboratory conditions. The biodegradation data were fitted to eight models, four of which are based on microbial growth rate and the other four based on order of reaction. Results obtained show that bior...

Kinetic Modelling Of Enhanced Bioremediation Of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

ABSTRACT Remediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil applying all existing techniques can be slow, expensive and requires close monitoring. Bioremediation and phytoremediation augmented bioremediation have been used to treat petroleum contaminated soil and even the difficult poly aromatic hydrocarbon polluted soil which takes longer time. What has not been studied was the effect of heavy metals present in petroleum which slows down the substrate degradation by microorganisms. After the primary ...

Development Of A Cathodic Protection System Using A Galvanic Anode Method

ABSTRACT The development of a Cathodic Protection System for a mild steel pipe using a magnesium anode was investigated. The pipe was externally coated with three layers of polykene tape wrapping and the soil resistivity was determined using the Wenner four pin method; a value of 2177Ωcm was obtained. The design parameters for the developed Cathodic Protection System were: total current of 0.0153mA; current density of 0.01mA/m 2 ; protection current of 0.0153mA; protection voltage of 0.95V...

Development And Performance Evaluation Of A Tray Column Under Vertical And Tilt Conditions

ABSTRACT In this work, the operation and performance of a novel Separation Tray Column under Vertical and Tilt conditions is presented. The Tray Column used for the work is a Downcomerless liquid initiated and controlled Valve Tray with capacity to shut portions of the tray lacking liquid at any time. To evaluate the mass transfer performance of this column, an oxidation experiment was conducted at 300C and the percentage of Fe (II) oxidised to Fe (III) from contaminated water by air was cho...

Optimizing The Conditions And Processes For The Production Of Protein Nutrient From Parkia Biglobosa Seeds

ABSTRACT African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds known as ‘Iyere’ in Yoruba language were fermented aerobically and anaerobically at 40, 50, 60 and 70 °С for five days (120 hours) with the aid of two starter cultures - Bacillus Subtilis and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae to a vegetable protein based food condiment known as ‘Iru’. The Fermenter was fabricated with galvanized iron, thus getting rid of the unhygienic methods of producing it locally. Samples were taken every day (24 hour...

Development And Characterization Of Zeolitey From A Nigerian Local Raw Material.

ABSTRACT Zeolites are important chemical materials used in chemical processes. The manufacture of the materials usually involves the use of expensive chemicals. This study involves the use of Elefun Nigerian Kaolin (ENK) as precursor material for the development of zeolite Y. The synthesis of zeolite Y was successful following a sequence: collection of raw kaolin clay from Elefun area of Ogun state, Nigeria; subjecting it to, calcination, partial dealumination and final hydrothermal syn...

Production And Life Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel From Three Waste Oils

ABSTRACT Converting the huge amount of waste cooking oils presently generated globally to biodiesel as complementary energy source to fossil fuel is one of the major routes to sustainable energy management. However, producing quality biodiesel at established optimum conditions, through a clean technology with favourable environmental implications is of greater importance. This research focused on achieving the latter through alkali catalysed trans-esterification process of biodiesel producti...

Short-Term Lime Pretreatment And Enzymatic Conversion Of Sawdust Into Ethanol

ABSTRACT The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol has attracted considerable interests in the last few decades. The emergence of new technologies has provided hope for fuel ethanol potential uses. Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is constrained due to its complex structural features, so pretreatment is important to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. In this study, the...

Short-Term Lime Pretreatment And Enzymatic Conversion Of Sawdust Into Ethanol

ABSTRACT The utilization of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol has attracted considerable interests in the last few decades. The emergence of new technologies has provided hope for fuel ethanol potential uses. Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is constrained due to its complex structural features, so pretreatment is important to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. In this study, th...

Production And Life Cycle Assessment Of Biodiesel From Three Waste Oils

ABSTRACT Converting the huge amount of waste cooking oils presently generated globally to biodiesel as complementary energy source to fossil fuel is one of the major routes to sustainable energy management. However, producing quality biodiesel at established optimum conditions, through a clean technology with favourable environmental implications is of greater importance. This research focused on achieving the latter through alkali catalysed trans-esterification process of biodiesel producti...

Investigating The Viability Of Hydrogen Production From Sodium Borohydride Using Organic Acids And Extracts From Spoilt Citrus Fruit

ABSTRACT With the fast depletion of fossil fuel sources for energy production and coupled with their negative impacts on the environment, the continued search for alternative sources that are renewable, sustainable and environmentally friendly has become imperative. This research examined the performance of sodium borohydride for the production of hydrogen gas using 5 ml each of organic acid (acetic acid) and extracts of spoilt citrus fruits (lime, lemon and orange) without the use of neithe...

Development And Characterization Of Zeolitey From A Nigerian Local Raw Material

ABSTRACT Zeolites are important chemical materials used in chemical processes. The manufacture of the materials usually involves the use of expensive chemicals. This study involves the use of Elefun Nigerian Kaolin (ENK) as precursor material for the development of zeolite Y. The synthesis of zeolite Y was successful following a sequence: collection of raw kaolin clay from Elefun area of Ogun state, Nigeria; subjecting it to, calcination, partial dealumination and final hydrothermal syn...

Study Of The Effect Of Graphite On Electrical Properties Of High Density Polyethylene

ABSTRACT A sample of high density polyethylene and graphite powder was made to study the effect of graphite power content on the electrical properties of high density polyethylene, graphite offers the benefit of low density and cost when compared to metallic substances used for the same function , the sample was tested with different concentrations of graphite powder (30,40,50)% and in different temperatures, the study reached to the following results: The conductivity of the HDPE was increa...

The Engineering Challenge For Cost Effective Steel Scrap Recovery In Nigeria

ABSTRACT. Cost effective steel utilization as distinct from steel utilization is an engineering challenge of our time, especially in this austere period. Steel scrap recovery is defmitely one of the areas to be seriously looked into by Nigerian engineers. After estimating the recoverable steel scrap to the year 200AD, this paper aims at fmding an appropriate technology and size for steel scrap recovery bearing in mind the need for self reliance and the level of our technological advancement....


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