Environmental Science Research Papers/Topics

Pollution risk from Pb towards vegetation growing in and around shooting ranges – a review

Abstract: Commissioned and de-commissioned shooting ranges continue to pose an environmental and human health risk due to the accumulation of toxic Pb emanating from spent munitions. The phytotoxic effects of Pb accumulation in plants include inhibition of root growth and lowering of plant metabolism. The uptake of Pb by plants is directly affected by factors such as plant species and physicochemical properties of the soil. However, scientists and researchers have leveraged on the ability of...

Assessment of the concentration of heavy metals associated with landfill leachate in Gamodubu soils in the Kweneng District, Botswana

Abstract: Composting is a common method of household waste in developing countries such as Botswana. However, compost can introduce heavy metals which are harmful to the environment. High concentrations of heavy metals are toxic to plants and humans and can affect soil by killing soil microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of four heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu and Pb) in Gamodubu soils that are associated with leachate from a landfill in that area. Soil samples were c...

Green Computing: Students, Campus Computing and The Environment: A Case For Botswana

Abstract: How has Information Technology (IT) impacted lives, especially of students studying in higher institutions of learning in Botswana? Are IT users aware of the concept and application of Green Computing? The aim of this paper is to answer the above important questions. In this paper we will critically look at IT penetration in Botswana and how it has impacted the lives of Batswana users, both positively and negatively. The paper also aims to assess awareness levels of IT users with r...

Data to understand the biotransfer of heavy metals along the soil-plant-edible insect-human food chain in Africa

Abstract: Data on the biotransfer of heavy metals along the soil-plant-edible insect-human food chain collected along a 60km pollution gradient is presented here. These datasets consists of concentrations of eight heavy metals (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Nickel, Lead and Zinc) in the soils, in five host plants species, and in seven edible insect species determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). Datasets for the daily intake of metals and target hazard quotien...

Grazing exclosures increase soil organic carbon stock at a rate greater than “4 per 1000” per year across agricultural landscapes in Northern Ethiopia

Abstract: The establishment of grazing exclosures is widely practiced to restore degraded agricultural lands and forests.Here, we evaluated the potential of grazing exclosures to contribute to the “4 per 1000” initiative by analyzing the changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and sequestration (SCS) rates after their establishment on de graded communal grazing lands in Tigray region of Ethiopia. We selected grazing areas that were excluded from grazing for 5 to 24 years across the t...

Odor composition of field versus laboratory desert locust populations

Abstract: Olfaction plays an important role in the behavioural ecology of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera:Acrididae). Different locust life stages and sexes use olfactory cues for different behaviours such as grouping, mating, oviposition, feeding, maturation and gregarization, which can be exploited for management of the desert locust. However, the full spectrum of the chemistry of volatiles released by the desert locust remains unknown. Here, we compared the volatile em...

Predicting future distribution patterns of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. in South Africa in response to climate change

Abstract: Invasive alien species such as Bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.) pose immense threats to global food security, biodiversity, ecosystem integrity and provision of ecosystem services. The Bellyache bush has generally been naturalised in Africa but poses vast management challenges in the African Savannah, yet there is little knowledge of its spatial distribution and future potential invasion risk.In this study, we modelled the spatial distribution of Bellyache bush in South A...

The use of multisource spatial data for determining the proliferation of stingless bees in Kenya

Abstract: Stingless/meliponine bees are eusocial insects whose polylactic nature enables interaction with a wide variety of wild plants and crops that enhance pollination and, hence, support ecosystem services. However, their true potential regarding pollination services and honey production is yet to be fully recognized. Worldwide, there are over 800 species of meliponine bees, with over 20 species documented on the African continent. Out of these, only 12 species have been well documented ...

Pheromone and population genetics analyses of Clavigralla species in Africa

Abstract: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)) are major sources of protein for human and animal consumption. Production of these crops is hampered by insect pests, especially the complex of brown spiny bugs of the genus Clavigralla (Hemiptera: Coreidae) which causes yield loss of up to 100% in various parts of Africa. The current practice of pesticide application to control these species is not efficient and has negative impacts on human health and ...

Management of Spoladea recurvalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on amaranths using biopesticides

Abstract: Amaranths are African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) that are gaining popularity in several countries around the world due to their nutritional, medicinal and economic values. Insect pests are however a major challenge to optimum production of amaranths. The lepidopteran defoliator moth commonly known as Hawaiian beet webworm/amaranth leaf-webber, Spoladea recurvalis has been reported to be a major pest in amaranth fields, with the potential of causing complete defoliation under seve...

Understanding agronomic and phytochemical properties of Brachiaria for management of cereal stemborers in East Africa

Abstract: Grasses in the genus Brachiaria, commonly known as brachiaria are grown as a fodder crop in sub-Saharan Africa, with some genotypes being used in management of the spotted stemborer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) through a habitat management strategy. Stemborer is a major insect pest of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) in Africa. However, utilization of brachiaria in cereal-livestock based farming systems in the region faces several bi...

An Autodissemination Strategy using Entomopathogenic Fungi and kairomonal attractants for Managing thrips on Grain Legumes

Abstract: Grain legumes are among the key economical crops widely grown in western and eastern Africa as important sources of food and animal fodder. However, the production of grain legumes in Kenya is seriously affected by a complex of insect pests particularly thrips. Yield losses of 20 to 100% have often been reported in some areas. The bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti is considered to be the most important thrips pest of grain legumes. Chemical control is still the mai...

Chemical ecology of plant-to-plant communication and opportunities for maize stemborer management in Africa

Abstract: Maize is the most widely grown cereal crop worldwide, and is the most important staple crop in sub-Sahara Africa. The spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) is considered among the most important pests of maize and the damage it causes may result in yield losses of up to 88%. Previous studies showed that plants damaged by herbivores release huge amounts of volatile compounds, known as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) into the environment, whic...

Damage to citrus and vegetables by Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and prospects for control with entomopathogenic fungi

Abstract: Globally, orange is one of the major fruit crops contributing to nutrition and monetary income. False codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, is one of the major constraints of orange production. Before this study, little was known regarding the bioecology of FCM in orange and vegetables in Kenya and Tanzania and the potential use of dry conidia of entomopathogenic fungi for control of T. leucotreta moths has not been tested. There is also no IPM strategy available for FCM in...

Assessment of the diversity and roles of bacterial symbionts in fruit fly development and response to biological control

Abstract: Tephritid fruit flies are among the most destructive pest species of fruits and vegetables in many regions of the world. Apart from high losses in yield, tephritid fruit fly pests pose great socioeconomic and ecological challenges as well as demand effective measures to curb infestation which can be costly. Among currently used management options are the use of chemical insecticides, behavioral, genetic, cultural and biological approaches. However, no single method or combination o...


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