Medicine and Surgery Research Papers/Topics

Pain Assessment among African Neonates

Abstract Neonates who require treatment and venous drawing of blood samples in the newborn units are subjected to acute and painfully invasive procedures. Several tools to assess pain among newborns have been developed and are widely used in developed countries, but in Africa, there is limited experience in the assessment pain among newborns. This study assessed physiological and behavioral responses to pain among neonates during invasive procedures performed in a newborn unit in Rwanda. A t...

Video Capsule Endoscopy and Ingestible Electronics

In this review, we focus on the hardware and software technologies used for the purpose of gastrointestinal tract monitoring in a safe and comfortable manner. We review the FDA guidelines for ingestible wireless telemetric medical devices, and the features incorporated in capsule systems such as microrobotics, closed-loop feedback, physiological sensing, nerve stimulation, sampling and delivery, panoramic imaging and rapid reading software. Both experimental and commercialized capsule systems...

Pattern and causes of tympanic membrane perforation at a private hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Abstract Introduction: There is variation in the size, shape and position of tympanic membrane perforations; the degree of conductive hearing loss depends on the size and position of perforation. Objective: To determine the pattern and causes of tympanic membrane perforation at a private health facility in Tanzania Method: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in the ENT clinic at Ekenywa Specialised Hospital was conducted from January to May 2019. Ears were examined thoroughly by an Otorhin...

EWMA Control Chart Using Repetitive Sampling for Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels in Type-II Diabetes Patients

Abstract : In this paper, we discuss the application of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart for the monitoring blood glucose in type-II diabetes patients. We present tables for the practical use in healthcare. From the simulation results and a real example, the efficiency of the proposed chart in detecting a shift in diabetic level is compared with the existing chart. It is found that the proposed chart provides a strict method to monitor the diabetic levels in diab...

Prevalence Of Iron Deficiency In Children 6-24 Months In Lagos

Abstract Background: iron deficiency is the commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in children worldwide particularly in developing countries. Infants and toddlers are prone to developing iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of IDA and some factors associated with it in this group of children. Study Design: In a study, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) estimations done in 282 apparently well children aged 6-24 months...

Diagnostic Difficulty-An Elusive Case Of Hansen´S Disease Mimicking Sarcoidosis

Abstract Hansen´s disease (leprosy) is caused by a slow-growing type of bacteria called Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). It is an age-old disease that has been around since biblical times yet cases still occur especially in Asia and Africa, despite concerted global efforts to eradicate the disease. Chemotherapeutic agents are available and effective once administered appropriately and adequately. We report an elusive case of Hansen´s disease wherein the only symptom was a nodule on the na...

Clinical Characteristics And Health Care Received Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Attending Secondary And Tertiary Healthcare Facilities In Mwanza Region, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Stud

Abstract Background: Tanzania is among the sub-Saharan African countries facing a tremendous increase in the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In order to provide diabetes health care services, the government has established diabetes care clinics in secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities. However, previous studies have demonstrated a disparity in availability of supplies and equipment for provision of diabetes health care services at these healthcare facilities. This study aims to as...

Clinicoradiologic and Sonographic Patterns of Metastasis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, when little remedy could be offered. There is a need for relatively affordable, available and noninvasive tests for diagnosis, staging and detection of metastasis among individuals at risk. A clinical, chest radiographic (CXR) and abdominal ultrasonographic examination was carried out to detect and evaluate the pattern of metastasis among 53 untreated patients. One patient had clinical paraparesis with no outwa...

Rationale For Vitamin C Treatment For Covid-19 and Other Viruses.

Vitamin C and Coronavirus: Not a Vaccine; Just a Humble Cure Commentary by William F. Simmons and Robert G. Smith, PhD During the pneumonia epidemic in North Carolina in the 1940s, after American soldiers returned from the war in Europe, a small-town physician used an anti-infective protocol of intravenous vitamin C to cure 42 cases of viral pneumonia. [1] During the same period, the physician used a similar treatment to cure 60 cases of viral poliomyelitis. All patients were clinically well ...

Prevalence of Abnormal Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Positive Patients in Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Background: There have been reports of high rate of abnormal bone mineral densities (BMD) among people living with HIV. Following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) into Nigeria, the country is now home to increasing population of HIV positive patients. There is paucity of data about osteoporosis/osteopaenia and bone mineral density in this population. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of osteopaenia/...

Polymorphism of the atrial natriuretic peptide hormone and hypertension in residents of Calabar and Uyo, Nigeria

ABSTRACT The natriuretic peptide systems also affect blood pressure through its vasodilatory and natriuretic activities generating interest in its role in the development of hypertension. The polymorph isms of the ANP have been investigated in different populations but similar studies i are not documented for Nigerian populations. The study investigate the association of -C664G allele of the ANP gene and hypertension in residents of Calabar and Uyo, Nigeria. The study involved 1308 participan...

Knowledge of and attitude to foot care amongst Type 2 diabetes patients attending a university-based primary care clinic in Nigeria

ABSTRACT Background: Individuals living with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of developing foot ulcers and cardiovascular complications or a neuropathy that may result in amputations. These complications have been shown to be already present in about 10% of diabetic patients at the time of diagnosis. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness and attitude to foot care among adult diabetic patients attending a university health centre (i.e. a primary...

Detection of p53 codon 249 mutation in Nigerian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma using a novel evaluation of cell-free DNA

ABSTRACT Objectives: This case-control study was done to determine the association and prevalence of p53 codon 249 mutation using cell-free DNA in the plasma of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in South-Western Nigeria. Method: Eighty-five adults with HCC and seventy-seven age and gender matched controls without evidence of liver disease or malignancy involving any part of the body, were recruited. Plasma DNA was analyzed for p53 codon 249 by restriction fragment length polymorphi...

Informed Consent in International Research: Perspectives from India, Iran and Nigeria

ABSTRACT The amount of international biomedical research is increasing and much of this is happening in developing countries. It is important to place adequate focus on the issue of obtaining voluntary informed consent. Researchers need to understand local socio-cultural realities and also respect local cultural beliefs and indigenous research guidelines. Through examples from India, Iran and Nigeria the authors highlight the diversity within and between developing country situations. Emphasi...

Anaesthetic Considerations for the HIV Positive Parturient

The HIV epidemic in children parallels that among women on account of perinatal transmission. A combination of antiretroviral therapy and elective caesarean section reduces the rate of vertical transmission to


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