Research Papers/Topics in Occupational Medicine

Assessment Of The Occurence Of Viable Helminthes Ova In Faecal Sludge And Pit Desludging Practices In Nakuru County, Kenya.

ABSTRACTThe use of pit latrines, their eventual fill up and need to desludge them expose humans and the environment to diseases associated with untreated excreta. Based on this, a study was done in Nakuru County to assess prescence of viable parasitic helminthes ova in faecal sludge and pit desludging and disposal practices used. Thirty five pit latrines were sampled and the prescence of parasitic helminthes ova determined at varius pit depths. Pit desludging and disposal practices was also a...

Assessment Of Occupational Exposures To Lead Among Artisans Working In The Informal Automobile Sector In Nakuru Town, Kenya

ABSTRACTLead is a common toxic heavy metal with unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a variety of applications in automobile industry. The artisans in the informal automobile industry are involved in diverse occupational tasks such as spray painting and welding that predispose them to health risks associated with lead exposures. Their work presents risks of inhalation, dermal absorption or ingestion of lead particles. The objective of this study was to evaluate oc...

Assessment Of Water Quality And The Use Of Sanitary Surveys In Identifying Water Source Risk Factors In Kisii County

Safe drinking water is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as water that meets WHO guidelines or national standards for physical, chemical and microbial characteristics. Microbial contamination of drinking water can cause diarrheal and other waterborne diseases that cause morbidity and even mortality. Sanitary surveys which are observational checklists highlighting potential risks of contamination can be used because they are easier to implement than microb...

An Assessment Of The Contribution Of Faecal Disposal Practices On The Bacteriological Quality Of Drinking Water Sources In Isiolo County, Kenya

ABSTRACTThe basic needs of people such as safe drinking water, improved hygiene and sanitationmust be fulfilled for a dignified life of human beings. However, this has not been the case inIsiolo County where there is rampant practice of open defecation and reliance on unprotectedwater sources for drinking purposes, with little or no regard to adequate drinking watertreatment handling and storage. This study sought to establish the contribution of faecaldisposal practices among residents ...

Assessment Of Disposal Practices Of Pharmaceutical Waste Among Households Within Nakuru Town, Nakuru County, Kenya

ABSTRACTPharmaceuticals are critical in maintaining the health of people and improving the quality of life for millions of Kenyans, but not all pharmaceuticals dispensed are consumed. They become waste when they are no longer usable for intended purpose or are being discarded for other reasons such as contamination and expiration. Improperly disposed pharmaceuticals end up in garbage collection centres and water purification systems which are not sufficiently equipped to manage this form of w...

Factors Associated With The Practice Of Open Defecation In Lodwar, Kenya: A Mixed Method Research

ABSTRACT Approximately 2.5 billion people lack access to improved sanitation globally. The situation is even worse in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The practice of open defecation peaks beyond 72% of the population in Turkana. This has resulted into frequent outbreaks of water-related diseases such as cholera outbreak in the year 2013 and 2018. The main aim of this study was to assess socioeconomic factors associated with the persistent practice of open defecation in Lodwar. ...

Dietery Risk Assessment For Exposure To Pesticide Residues In Exotic Vegetables Sold In Nakuru Town, Kenya

ABSTRACTVegetables constitute an important part of the human diet as a source of nutrients such as vitamins. The emerging lifestyle changes and need to live a healthy life have led to increased consumption of vegetables. There are, however, growing concerns over the indiscriminate use of pesticides and lack of clear safety standards for maximum residue levels for vegetables sold in the local market. This study was done to assess human exposure to pesticide residues through consumption of exot...

Heavy Metal Concentrations In Tissues Of Commercially Exploited Fish (Oreochromis Niloticus Baringoensis, Protopterus Aethiopicus, Clarias Gariepinus) From Lake Baringo, Kenya

ABSTRACTStudies have shown that elevated heavy metal concentrations in water and sediments may be biomagnified along the aquatic food chains/webs and eventually affecting human health through the consumption of metal-contaminated water and/or fish from such water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the concentration of heavy metals in the tissues of Oreochromis niloticus baringoensis, Protopterus aethiopicus and Clarias gariepinus fish species of Lake Baringo and compare the results wi...

Effects Of Clear-Cut On Water Quality, Coarse Particulate Organic Matter And Periphyton In Chepkoo River, Kenya

ABSTRACTRivers are essential ecosystems that assist in maintaining and supporting functions and ecological processes that are important for sustaining the biodiversity and providing services and resources to people. However, in the tropics they are under threat of deterioration as a result of human encroachment and more so, removal of riparian vegetation. This study aimed at assessing the effects clear-cut of Tumoo forest on water quality, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) and benthic ...

Assessment Of The Occurence Of Viable Helminthes Ova In Faecal Sludge And Pit Desludging Practices In Nakuru County, Kenya

ABSTRACTThe use of pit latrines, their eventual fill up and need to desludge them expose humans and the environment to diseases associated with untreated excreta. Based on this, a study was done in Nakuru County to assess prescence of viable parasitic helminthes ova in faecal sludge and pit desludging and disposal practices used. Thirty five pit latrines were sampled and the prescence of parasitic helminthes ova determined at varius pit depths. Pit desludging and disposal practices was also a...

Retrospective Comparison Of Cyclophosphamide And Mycophenolate Mofetil In Lupus Nephritis At Groote Schuur Hospital Nephrology Unit

ABSTRACT Background: Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and is associated with end-stage renal disease, need for renal replacement therapy and death. There is no African data comparing the efficacy or outcome of patients managed with Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide (CYC) during induction of proliferative LN. Objectives: The study aimed to assess treatment response after induction therapy with MMF ...

Radiation Protection For Patients Undergoing Simple Radiographic Examination In Some Selected Health Facilities In Accra

ABSTRACTThe use of X-rays in medical diagnostic radiology has increased globally. The medical use of X-ray for diagnosis of illness is subject to the principles of justification and optimization for the protection of exposed individuals. Medical X-ray accounts for the largest exposure of humans to man-made ionizing radiation. Exposure of individuals can lead to long-termstochastic effects. Over exposure of humans in interventional procedures can also lead to deterministic effects such as skin...

Respiratory Symptoms And Dermatological Conditions In Municipal Solid Waste Workers In Tema: The Case Of Zoomlion Ghana Limited

ABSTRACTBackground: In rapidly urbanizing cities of developing countries such as Ghana, the quantity of solid waste (SW) generated from various activities have increased over the years, and managing municipal solid waste (MSW) has become both an important economic activity as well as an issue of public health concern due to its associated health hazards. Although some studies have reported decreased pulmonary function and an increased prevalence of certain respiratory symptoms, there is still...

Workplace Violence Against Hospital Staff In Selected Hospitals In Greater Accra Region: A Study Of The Prevalence And Related Factors

ABSTRACT Workplace violence is a globally recognised workplace hazard in the health sector however, there is a lack of research on the phenomenon in Ghana. Workplace violence includes physical and psychological violence and involves acts such as assault, threats, verbal and sexual abuse. These can all have deleterious effects on victims. Thus, this study sought to determine the prevalence and factors relating to violence perpetrated against hospital workers in the Greater Accra Regi...