Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Papers/Topics

Differential Induction of Proteins in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Cullicidae) Larvae in Response to Heavy Metal Selection

Abstract Investigations were conducted to establish the magnitude and pattern of differential expression of proteins due to generational selection of third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae by cadmium, copper and lead heavy metals, three possible common urban pollutants. A susceptible strain of An. gambiae s.s. third instar larvae was separately placed under selection pressure with cadmium, copper and lead at LC30 and controls through five generations. First, third and fifth generation selectio...

Molecular diagnosis of a previously unreported predator–prey association in coffee: Karnyothrips flavipes Jones (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) predation on the coffee berry borer

Abstract: The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important pest of coffee throughout the world,causing losses estimated at US $500 million/year. The thrips Karnyothrips flavipes was observed for the first time feeding on immature stages of H. hampei in April 2008 from samples collected in the Kisii area of Western Kenya.Since the trophic interactions between H. hampei and K.flavipes are carried out entirely within the coffee berry, and because thrips feed by liquid ingestio...

RNA Interference: a Pathway to Drug Target Identification and Validation in Trypanosome.

Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a phenomenon through which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces potent sequence-specific degradation of homologous transcripts. Besides its function in cellular defense and developmental regulation, it has emerged as an invaluable tool for elucidation of gene function and drug target validation. This is particularly useful when substantial genome sequence data are available. Gene silencing using RNAi can aid translation of raw genomic sequence data into bi...

Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum PHISTb proteins as potential targets of naturally-acquired immunity against malaria [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations].

Abstract: Background: Plasmodium falciparum causes the deadliest form of malaria in humans. Upon infection, the host’s infected red blood cells (iRBCs) are remodelled by exported parasite proteins to provide a niche for parasite development and maturation. Methods: Here we analysed the role of three PHISTb proteins Pf3D7_0532400, Pf3D7_1401600, and Pf3D7_1102500 by expressing recombinant proteins and evaluated antibody responses against these proteins using immune sera from malaria-exposed...

Ingredients for Understanding Brain and Behavioral Evolution: Ecology, Phylogeny, and Mechanism

Abstract: Uncovering the neural correlates and evolutionary drivers of behavioral and cognitive traits has been held back by traditional perspectives on which correlations to look for—in particular,anthropocentric conceptions of cognition and coarse-grained brain measurements. We welcome our colleagues’ comments on our overview of the field and their suggestions for how to move forward. Here, we counter, clarify, and extend some points, focusing on the merits of looking for the “best�...

Editorial: Physiological, molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in tropical crops

Abstract: The tropics are either the center of origin or domestication of many of the economically important crops currently cultivated in the world (Phalan et al., 2013; Fern and Fern, 2014; Laurance et al., 2014). Abiotic stresses, such as drought, chilling, and nutrient deficiency, are the major constraints for plant growth and productivity (Zhu, 2016). Therefore, an improved understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses and tolerance mechanisms, along with the ...

Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) in Diaphorina citri and Their Expression Patterns Induced by the Endophyte Beauveria bassiana

Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which play key roles in helping the host immune system fight pathogen invasions. Systematic information on TLRs at the genome-wide level and expression profiling in response to endophytic colonization is very important to understand their functions but is currently lacking in this field. Here, a total of two TLR genes were identified and characterized in Diaphorina citri. The TLR genes of D. citri were clustered ...

Cost-Effective PCR-Based Identification of Tunga penetrans (Siphonaptera) Larvae Extracted from Soil Samples Containing PCR Inhibitor-Rich Material

Abstract: Tungiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by skin-penetrating female Tunga penetrans fleas. Although tungiasis causes severe health problems, its ecology is poorly understood and morphological descriptions of the larvae are unavailable. To identify T. penetrans immature stages and sites where they develop, diagnostic PCRs are required. However, flea larvae feed on soil organic matter rich in PCR inhibitors. Here, three DNA preparation methods, including a soil DNA kit that r...

The developmentally dynamic microRNA transcriptome of Glossina pallidipes tsetse flies, vectors of animal trypanosomiasis

Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded gene regulators of 18–25 bp in length. They play a crucial role in regulating several biological processes in insects. However, the functions of miRNA in Glossina pallidipes, one of the biological vectors of African animal trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa, remain poorly characterized. We used a combination of both molecular biology and bioinformatics techniques to identify miRNA genes at different developmental stages (larvae, pupae, ten...

Three-gene PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for differentiating vertebrate species mitochondrial DNA for biodiversity research and complementing forensic surveillance.

Abstract: Reliable molecular identification of vertebrate species from morphologically unidentifiable tissue is critical for the prosecution of illegally-traded wildlife products, conservation-based biodiversity research, and identification of blood-meal hosts of hematophagous invertebrates. However, forensic identification of vertebrate tissue relies on sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) ‘barcode’ gene, which remains costly for purposes of screening large numbers...

Ample glycosylation in membrane and cell envelope proteins may explain the phenotypic diversity and virulence in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

Abstract: Multiple regulatory mechanisms including post-translational modifcations (PTMs) confer complexity to the simpler genomes and proteomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PTMs such as glycosylation play a signifcant role in Mtb adaptive processes. The glycoproteomic patterns of clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) representing the lineages 3, 4, 5 and 7 were characterized by mass spectrometry. A total of 2944 glycosylation events were discovered in 13...