Production of Biopesticide from Need Seed

Dawit Dugasa 81 PAGES (14872 WORDS) Thesis
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Abstract

Due to the toxic effects of chemical pesticide and other agro chemicals on human beings and livestock, residual toxicity, environmental problems, pest out-breaks and drastic effects on beneficial insects the use chemical pesticide and other agro chemicals are getting reduced /being banned globally. But Biopesticides that are extracted, for example, from neem seed can tackle these problems to make it more eco-friendly, economically viable and socially acceptable for the farmers.

Biopesticides  are  certain  types  of  pesticides  derived  from  such  natural materials  as  animals,  plants, bacteria,  and  certain  minerals. The key insecticidal ingredient found in the neem tree is  azadirachtin,  the  potent insect  and  mite killer,  anti-feedant, and  growth  retardant  isolated  from  the  kernel of neem seeds. The general objective of this research is to produce biopesticide from neem tree seed by the method of solvent extraction. The neem seeds were crushed in to 0.25-0.5 mm sizes for easy grinding. Sample drying was carried out in sunlight for 24hr to obtain easily crushable material. The maximum particle sizes of the ground mixed sample were 0.5 mm. The effects of particle size, solvent, temperature and time on the yield were investigated. The optimum results were obtained at 0.25mm particle size, 69oC temperature and with yield of 41.78% at the time of four hour. Under these condition hundred percent of water soluble and stable biopesticide was obtained by mixing with the neem oil and liquid detergent. Investigation on the technical and economic feasibility of the work for biopesticide production was performed and results from the feasibility study indicated that the proposed work was feasible with rate of return (RR) 31% and with the payback period of estimated to be 3 years.

Key words: neem, Azadirachtin, biopesticide, neem oil

                         

Table of Contents

Acknowledgement. II

List of Tables. VII

List of Figures. VIII

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

1. INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………………...1

1.2. Statement of Problem……………………………………………………………………3

1.3. Objective………………………………………………………………………………...4

1.3.1 General objective…………………………………………………………………….4

1.3.2. Specific objectives…………………………………………………………………..4

1.4. Significance of the study………………………………………………………………..4

1.5. Limitation……………………………………………………………………………….4

CHAPTER TWO.. 5

2. LITERATUREREVIEW... 5

2.1 Definition of pesticide…………………………………………………………………...5

2.1.1. Biopesticide…………………………………………………………………………5

2.1.2 Chemical Pesticides. 6

2.2. Neem……………………………………………………………………………………7

2.2.1 Reviews on Chemical constituents of Neem.. 8

2.2.2 Specification of Azadirachtin in neem.. 8

2.2.3 Importance of neem.. 9

2.2.4 Bioactive compounds in neem oil 9

2.5 Factors affecting biopesticide production……………………………………………...10

2.5.1 Temperature, time, particle size and type of solvent used. 10

2.5.2. Seasonal and maturity variations. 10

2.5.3. Geographical variation. 11

2.5.4. Other factors affecting yield. 11

2.6. Biological effects of neem on insects………………………………………………….12

2.6.1 Insect growth regulation. 12

2.6.2 Feeding deterrent 13

2.6.3 Ovipositor deterrent 13

2.7. Methods of bio pesticide production…………………………………………………..14

2.7.1 Mechanical extraction method. 14

2.7.2 Steam pressure extraction method. 15

2.7.3 Solvent Extraction method. 15

CHAPTER THREE.. 17

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 17

3.1 Materials and equipment’s……………………………………………………………..17

3.2 Description of process flow diagram…………………………………………………..20

3.3. Experimental procedures and method………………………………………………...22

3.4. Sample analysis………………………………………………………………………..23

3.4.1. Determination of moisture content of the seeds. 23

3.4.2. Size reduction and sieve analysis of the seeds. 23

CHAPTERFOUR.. 24

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. 24

4.1. Moisture Contents……………………………………………………….…………….24

4.2. Soxhlet extraction……………………………………………………………………..24

4.2.1. Percent yield of soxhlet extractor 24

4.3 Stability testing at 50 degree centigrade……………………………………………….28

4.4. Observation and Discussions………………………………………………………….28

CHAPTER FIVE.. 29

5. MATERIALAND ENERGY BALANCE.. 29

CHAPTER SIX.. 35

6. SIZING AND DESIGN OF MAJOR EQUPMENT. 35

6.1 Sizing of equipment’s…………………………………………………………………..35

6.2. Design of centrifuge…………………………………………………………………...38

CHAPTER SEVEN.. 52

7. COSTING AND ECNOMICS. 52

7.1purchased Equipment cost……………………………………………………………...52

7.2. Estimation of capital investment cost…………………………………………………53

7.2.1. Fixed capital investment (FCI) estimation. 53

7.2.2. Total production cost (TPC) estimation. 53

7.3. Economic evaluation…………………………………………………………………..55

7.3.1. Net income, Payback time and return on investment 55

7.4. Plant layout, environmental impact and site location…………………………………55

7.4.1 Environmental impact analysis. 56

7.4.2 Plant layout 57

CHAPTER EIGHT. 59

8. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 59

8.1. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..59

8.2. Recommendation………………………………………………………………………60

REFERENCES. 61

APPENDICES. 63

APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………………………..63

APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………………………..64

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APA

Dawit, D (2019). Production of Biopesticide from Need Seed. Afribary.com: Retrieved August 19, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/final-group-2-p-12-2

MLA 8th

Dugasa, Dawit. "Production of Biopesticide from Need Seed" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 07 Jan. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/final-group-2-p-12-2 . Accessed 19 Aug. 2019.

MLA7

Dugasa, Dawit. "Production of Biopesticide from Need Seed". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 07 Jan. 2019. Web. 19 Aug. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/final-group-2-p-12-2 >.

Chicago

Dugasa, Dawit. "Production of Biopesticide from Need Seed" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed August 19, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/final-group-2-p-12-2