Hydro geochemistry and Engineering Geology of Adeta Area, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page...........................................................................................            i                                                                  

Certification........................................................................................           ii

Acknowledgment................................................................................           iii

Dedication............................................................................................          iv

Table of contents.................................................................................           v

List of Tables......................................................................................            vi

List of  Figures......................................................................................         vii

List of  Plates……………………………………………………….....         viii

Abstract..............................................................................................            ix                                                                                

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       General Statement                                                             

1.2       Aim and Objectives

1.3       Scope of the Study

1.4       The Study Area

1.4.1    Location and Extent of the Study Area

1.4.2    Climate and Vegetation

1.5       Water Quality and Principles of Hydrogeochemstry

1.6       Engineering Geology of soil

1.7        Literature Review

CHAPTER TWO

2.0        Geology

2.1         Geology of Nigeria

2.2        Geology of the Study Area

2.3       Hydrogeology of the Area

2.4       Hydrogeochemistry of the Area

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Methodology                                                                                                          

3.1       Materials Use while in the Field

3.2       Desk Work

3.3       Reconnaissance Survey

3.4       Field Work

3.4.1    Hydrogeological Mapping

3.5           Sampling                            

3.6      Laboratory Analysis

3.6.1    ICP-MS and AAS

3.6.1    Grain Size Distribution

3.6.2    Atterberg’s Consistency Limits

3.4.3     Permeability Test

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0        Result and Discussions

4.1        Flow Direction

4.2 HydrogeochemistryoftheArea        

4.2.1     Major Ions in Water

4.2.2.1 Statistical Distributions

4.2.2.2 Plots and Ratios

4.2.3     Heavy metals

4.2.3.1 Statistical Distribution

4.2.3.2 Water Quality Index Calculation

4.3         Geotechnical Survey Results

4.3.2      Result and Discussion of Grain Size Analysis

4.3.3      Result and Discussion of Atterberg’s Limit

4.3.4      Result and Discussion of Permeability Test

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0         Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1         Conclusion

5.1.1    Groundwater flow

5.1.2    Hydrochemistry and Water Quality

5.1.3    Engineering Properties of Soils

5.2         Recommendation

              References

ABSTRACT

A study on hydrogeochemistry and quality of shallow water and engineering properties of soil around the Adeta area in Ilorin was carried out based on data obtained from the field and laboratory. Groundwater flow, descriptive, and multivariant statistical analyses, piper, stiff and durov diagrams, as well water quality indices were used to describe hydrochemistry and water quality suitability of the area. Grain-size distribution, Atterberg limit and permeability indices were used to determine the soil properties. The results showed that groundwater flow is in NE-SW direction.  The cations occur in order of abundance of Ca>Na>K>Mg and anions are in the order of Cl>SO4>NO3>HCO3. The hydrogeochemical trends showed that the water type in the area is Na+K –SO4+Cl from both piper and durov diagrams. The stiff diagram indicates three water type group; Na-Cl, Ca-CO3 and Mg-SO4.  The grain size analysis showed that sample S1 have 5.4% clay, 5.0 % Silt, 30 % Fine sand 36.3 % Coarse sand and 20,8% Gravel with  CU of 1.33 and CC of 0.4; sample S2 has 0.1% clay, 0,7%  silt, 41.2% fine sand, 48.3 % Coarse sand and 6.9 % fine gravel with CU of 5.3 and CC 2.5;  sample S3 have 1.1% clay, 0.8% silt, 40.2% fine sand, 51.5% coarse sand and 6.5% fine gravel, with CU of 4.67 and CC 1.7.Samples S2 and S3 can be classified as coarse SAND; samples S1 can be classified as slightly gravelly SAND, based on USC table of soil distribution.  Therefore, based on the above classification, all the soil samples are poorly graded. The result of the permeability shows that sample S1 have coefficient of permeability of 7.7x10-4mm/s, S2 has 1.9x10-4mm/s, S3 and 8.0x10-5mm/s. Sample S1, S2, and S3, have liquid limit of 30, 30 and 35 respectively and plastic values of 31.3, 28.3 and 33.3 respectively with plasticity index of -1, 3, 1.7 and 1.7 respectively.Consistency test based on liquid limit and plastic limit values of an average of 31.7 and 30.97 with plastic index of 1.7indicating a medium plasticity state. The low LI and PI values are an indication of no changes in pore fluid characteristics of soil.The shallow water is contamination with Mn andthe soil for the areahas poor permeability to promote migration of the Mn.

 

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APA

Frontiers, E. & OLAMIDE, A (2022). Hydro geochemistry and Engineering Geology of Adeta Area, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/hydro-geochemistry-and-engineering-geology-of-adeta-area-ilorin-north-central-nigeria

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and ABERI OLAMIDE "Hydro geochemistry and Engineering Geology of Adeta Area, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 05 Jan. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/hydro-geochemistry-and-engineering-geology-of-adeta-area-ilorin-north-central-nigeria. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and ABERI OLAMIDE . "Hydro geochemistry and Engineering Geology of Adeta Area, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Jan. 2022. Web. 24 Jan. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/hydro-geochemistry-and-engineering-geology-of-adeta-area-ilorin-north-central-nigeria >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and OLAMIDE, ABERI . "Hydro geochemistry and Engineering Geology of Adeta Area, Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria." Afribary (2022). Accessed January 24, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/hydro-geochemistry-and-engineering-geology-of-adeta-area-ilorin-north-central-nigeria