Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock

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ABSTRACT

The physical properties of CNSL extracted by pyrolysis was studied using standard procedures. The physical properties of the CNSL studied and results obtained compared with other extraction methods (hexane extracted and decarboxylated) from literature are moisture content 4.1%, (6.40%, 3.2%), specific gravity 0.943 (0.926, 0.926) viscosity 57cp (40cp, 358cp), pH 4.5 (4.5, 5.2) and the percent composition of the CNSL compared with those from literature are cardol 27% (30%, 31% (cardanol 54% (20%, 65%), anacardic acid 51% (43%, 2%) other 14% (7%, 2%). The result obtained proved almost similar results in some properties (specific gravity and pH) but highly varied and different results in others. The CNSL obtained was characterized. Experimental results corroborated the fact that CNSL contains many phenolic compounds such as cardol, cardanol anacardic acid etc. these compounds can serve as feedstocks in the petrochemical industry. 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General Objective

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

1.4 Scope of the Study

1.5 Justification of the Study

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background of the Study

2.2 Extraction of CNSL

2.3 Chemistry of CNSL

2.4 Characteristics of CNSL

2.4.1 Chemical Characteristics

2.4.2 Physical characteristics

2.5 Toxicological effects of CNSL

2.6 Uses of CNSL

2.6.1 Drugs and pharmaceuticals

2.6.2 Wood preservatives and Biocides

2.6.3 Antioxidents

2.6.4 Surfactants

2.6.5 Organic intermediates

2.6.6 Others

2.7 CNSL as a petrochemical feedstock

2.8 Environmental impact

2.9 Future of CNSL

CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1. Sample Collection and Pretreatment

3.1.1 Extraction of the CNSL

3.1.2 Determination of moisture content of CNSL

3.1.3 Determination of specific gravity of CNSL

3.1.4 Determination of Viscosity of CNSL

3.1.5 Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane (from literature)

3.1.6 Determination of pH value of CNSL

3.1.7 Determination of calorific value by digital bomb calorimeter

3.1.8 Characterization of the Extracted CNSL Samples

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations

References

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APA

Beshel, S. (2021). Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/lyc96-3aito

MLA 8th

Beshel, Sunday "Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock" Afribary. Afribary, 14 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/lyc96-3aito. Accessed 28 Oct. 2021.

MLA7

Beshel, Sunday . "Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock". Afribary, Afribary, 14 Jun. 2021. Web. 28 Oct. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/lyc96-3aito >.

Chicago

Beshel, Sunday . "Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, A Renewable and Reliable Petro-Chemical Feedstock" Afribary (2021). Accessed October 28, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/lyc96-3aito