Biofuel Production Potential of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew)

Chike Nnamani 5 PAGES (2460 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

Mature and ripe cashew fruits were harvested, washed and the apples separated from the nuts. The apples were crushed and the juice extracted, sieved and treated with potassium metabisulphite, to check the activities of undesireable microorganisms, before fermentation. A 3-spatula full of true wine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus, was rehydrated and inoculated into a 2.5-liter part of the juice and allowed for 5 days in a room temperature of 32.50C to ferment. After fermentation, initial ethanol content (Cashew wine) of 7.5% was obtained. This ethanol could not be used in a combustion or gasoline engine as it contained a lot of impurities and high percentatage of water and, therefore, needed purification. The ethanol was distilled and re-distilled 8 times before obtaining a purer form of ethanol (95%). The 95% ethanol obtained was tested in a small 950-watts-capacity generating set with a gasoline engine; and the engine ignited and ran successfully. This study could establish the use of cashew apple juice in the production of biofuel; a move that will diversify the oil industry and reduce over dependence on fossil fuels.

 

Keywords: cashew apple juice; fermentation; ethanol (biofuel); Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus; distillation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                               …………….i

Certification page                                                                                  ……………ii

Dedication                                                                                               ………….iii

Acknowledgement                                                                               ……………iv

Abstract                                                                                                 ……………v

Table of Contents                                                                                   …………..vi

List of Tables                                                                                          ..…………x

List of Figures                                                                                         …………..xi

CHAPTER  ONE

1. Introduction                                                                                     ……………1

      1.1 Background Information                                                           ……………1

      1.2 Problem Statement                                                                      ..…………2

      1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                               ..…………3

      1.4 Justification of the Study                                                             …………..3

      1.5 Scope of the Study                                                                        ………….4

CHAPTER TWO

2. Literature Review                                                                          …………….5

      2.1 Historical Review of Ethanol use as Fuel                               ……………..5

      2.2 Global Biofuel Production                                                       …………….6

      2.3 Alcohol Fuel                                                                             …………….8

               2.3.1 Methanol and Ethanol                                                    ……………9

               2.3.2 Butanol                                                                            .…………10

       2.4 Ethanol-Based Engines                                                              ………….11

     2.5 Biofuel: A Renewable Energy Resource                                     .…………12 

               2.5.1 Different Generations of Biofuel                                    ………….13

                           2.5.1.1 First generation biofuel                                  …………..13

                           2.5.1.2 Second generation of biofuel                          ………….13

                           2.5.1.3 Third generation biofuel                                  ………….13

                           2.5.1.4 Fourth generation biofuel                                ………….14  

     2.6 Cashew Production (Anacardium occidentale)                               ……….14

               2.6.1 Cashew Development in Nigeria                                   ………….15

               2.6.2 Chemical Analysis of Cashew Apple Juice                    ………….16

               2.6.3 Production of Bioethanol from Cashew Apple Juice         ……….17

     2.7 Ethanol Production Processes                                                      ………….18

              2.7.1 Fermentation                                                                     …………18

              2.7.2 Distillation                                                                        …………19

              2.7.3 Dehydration                                                                        ..………19

     2.8 The Danger of Food Crises                                                           …………20

 

CHAPTER THREE

3. Materials and Method                                                                       ………..22

        3.1 Collection of Cashew Samples                                                   ………..22

        3.2 Extraction, Processing and Treatment of Cashew Apple Juice  ………..22

        3.3 Preparation of Inoculum for Fermentation                                  ………..23

        3.4 Fermentation of Cashew Apple Juice (Must)                              ………..23

        3.5 Distillation                                                                                   …..........25

        3.6 Testing of the Ethanol in a Gasoline Engine                              ………...26

        3.7 Testing of the Ethanol under Cold Weather                              …………26

CHAPTER FOUR

4. Result and Discussion                                                                            ………27

      4.1 Result                                                                                          ………….27

              4.1.1 The Fermentation of Cashew Apple Juice into Wine           ………27

              4.1.2 Obtaining 95% Ethanol from Cashew Wine through Distillation  ..27

              4.1.3 Using the Ethanol (Biofuel) in a Gasoline Engine                   ……28

              4.1.4 Ethanol Combustion under Cold Weather                            ………29

       4.2. Discussion                                                                                 …………29

                 4.2.1 The Chemistry of Biofuel Production and Combustion      . ……33

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5. Conclusion and Recommendation                                                      ………..34

        5.1 Conclusion                                                                                 …………34

        5.2 Recommendation                                                                       …………34

REFERENCES                                                                                      …………36

APPENDIX                                                                                               ..………44

 

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APA

Chike, N (2020). Biofuel Production Potential of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew). Afribary.com: Retrieved September 19, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/nnamani-chikezie-nchedos-paper

MLA 8th

Nnamani, Chike. "Biofuel Production Potential of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew)" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Sep. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/nnamani-chikezie-nchedos-paper . Accessed 19 Sep. 2020.

MLA7

Nnamani, Chike. "Biofuel Production Potential of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew)". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Sep. 2020. Web. 19 Sep. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/nnamani-chikezie-nchedos-paper >.

Chicago

Nnamani, Chike. "Biofuel Production Potential of Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew)" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed September 19, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/nnamani-chikezie-nchedos-paper