Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Crassocephallum Vitelline Leaf Extracts

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Table of Contents

List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................ iii

List of tables ............................................................................................................................................... iii

Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................. iv

Certification ...............•................................................................................................................................ v

Dedication .................................................................................................................................................. vi

Declaration ................................................................................................................................................ vii

Acknowledgement ................................................................................................................................... viii

Abstract ....................................................................................................................................................... I

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 3

Background: ............................................................................................................................................ 3

1.0 Statement of the problem .................................................................................................................. 5

1.1 Rationale of the study ........................................................................................................................ 5

1.2 Objectives: ......................................................................................................................................... 5

1.2.1 Broad objectives ......................................................................................................................... 5

1.2.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................................................... 5

1.4 Research questions: ........................................................................................................................... 6

1.5 Significance of the study: ................................................................................................................ 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................................................. 7

2.1 Crassocephalum vitellinum .......................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Traditional Medicinal uses of Crassocephalum vitellinwn: .......................................................... 8

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................. 10

3.1 Study design ............................................................................................................................... I 0

3.2 Setting of the study ..................................................................................................................... I 0

Collection and plant identification of Crassocephalum vitel!inum ....................................................... I 0

Preparation of crude drug for extraction ............................................................................................... I 0

Preparation of extracts ........................................................................................................................... I 0

(a)Method of extraction: .................................................................................................................... I 0

(b )Materials/equipments: ................................................................................................................... I 0

Extraction procedure: ............................................................................................................................ 11

Qualitative phytochemical tests ............................................................................................................ 12

(a)Test for alkaloids ........................................................................................................................... 12

(b)Test for reducing sugars ................................................................................................................ 12

(c)Test for saponins ........................................................................................................................... 12

(e)Test for tannins .............................................................................................................................. 12

(f)Test for steroids ............................................................................................................................. 13

(g) Test for terpenoids ........................................................................................................................ 13

(h)Test for cardiac glycosides ............................................................................................................ 13

(i)Test for amino acids ....................................................................................................................... 13

U) Test for phenols ............................................................................................................................ 13

(k) Test for diterpenes ........................................................................................................................ 13

(m)Test for phlobtannins ................................................................................................................... 13

(n) Test for anthraquinones ................................................................................................................ 13

Antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of crassocephallum vitellinum . ............................................ 14

Method and materials used: ............................................................................................................... 14

Procedure: .......................................................................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER IV: RESULTS ..................................................................................................................... 16

CHARPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION .......................................................................................................... 27

CHARPTER SIX: RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................... 29

REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 30  

ABSTRACT Objectives: The objectives of this study to carry out qualitative analysis of phytochemical constituents present in hexane, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts of crassocephallum vitellinum leaves and thereafter evaluate the antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of this plant against clinical pathogens of human origin. Methods: Extraction ofphytochemicals was performed by successive solvent extraction technique as explained by Hossamani.P.A (20 12). After the extraction process, phytochemical analysis was performed using qualitative methods explained by Evans (2002) and Harbone (1998). Antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested against staphylococcus areus, Escherichia coli and Klebsil!a pneumonia. The extracts were prepared at three varying concentrations of 300mg/ml, 150mg/ml and 75mg/ml. The antibacterial activity was determined by Agar well diffusion method as described by Sharmavaishale et al (2013). Results: Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, tannins, cardiac glycosides in all the three extracts used. Quinones were only present in the hexane extract where as diterpenoids, steroids and terpenoids were present in hexane and methanolic extracts only. Hexane extract demonstrated antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus at the highest concentrations. The maximum mean zone of inhibition was 13.5±2.12mm In addition, hexane demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition (18.5±4.95) against Escherichia coli at the highest concentration of the extract but remained inactive at the lower concentrations of this extract against Escherichia coli. Similarly, at 300mg/ml, hexane extract inhibited the growth of Klebsil!a pneumoniae with a min zone of inhibition of 13.5mm but also remained inactive at the lower concentrations of 150mg/ml and 75mg/ml. The methanolic extract was only active against staphy/ocococcus aureus at 300mg/ml with a mean zone of inhibition of 18±2.83mm. Methonolic extract did not have activity against Klebsilla pneumonia and Escherichia coli at all the three varying concentration. Furthermore, ethyl acetate showed no antibacterial activity against all the test microorganisms at all the three concentrations of the extracts.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & KHALIM, W (2022). Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Crassocephallum Vitelline Leaf Extracts. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-crassocephallum-vitelline-leaf-extracts

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and WANGOYE KHALIM "Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Crassocephallum Vitelline Leaf Extracts" Afribary. Afribary, 20 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-crassocephallum-vitelline-leaf-extracts. Accessed 29 Sep. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and WANGOYE KHALIM . "Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Crassocephallum Vitelline Leaf Extracts". Afribary, Afribary, 20 Aug. 2022. Web. 29 Sep. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-crassocephallum-vitelline-leaf-extracts >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and KHALIM, WANGOYE . "Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Crassocephallum Vitelline Leaf Extracts" Afribary (2022). Accessed September 29, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-crassocephallum-vitelline-leaf-extracts