PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
ABSTRACT
Inflammation is a complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen, damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The urgency generated by increased rate of stroke, atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983). Attention increasingly has been directed to natural products. These are often more affordable and available and sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.

Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each. Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard difference used.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page………………………………………………………………… i
Certification…………………………………………………………….ii
Dedication……………………………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………….iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………....v
Table of Content……………………………………………………vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.1  Introduction …………………………………………………1
1.2  Crateva adansonii as a plant..…………………….4

1.3  Research aim and objectives……………………...7

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation……………………..8
2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation……………….8
2.2 Classes of Inflammation…………………………9
2.3 Types of Inflammation…………………………….10
2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation…………13
2.4.0 Properties of Mediators………………………..16
2.4.1 Histamine…………………………………………18
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)…………21
2.4.3 Cytokines…………………………………………………..24
2.4.4 Arachidonic acid ………………………………………30
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)………………34
2.4.6 Free Radicals…………………………………….36
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)………………………………37
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals……………….40
2.4.7.0 Complement system………………………….41
2.4.7.1The clotting system/Coagulation system......45 
2.4.7.2The Kinin System……………………………. 48
2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system………………………50
2.5.0Anti-Inflammatory agents………………….. 53
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS).....53
2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS………….55
2.5.2Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs……….. 58

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Materials………………………………………………60
3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used……………………60
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents……………..61
3.1.3 Animals…………………………………………………..62
3.2 Methodology……………………………………………….63
3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials…..63
3.2.2 Extraction………………………………………………...63
3.3 Fractionation………………………………………………64
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography……………………….64
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups in the extract…………………………………………….65
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical analysis…………………………………………………….65
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the Extract…………………………………………….66
3.5Thin Layer Chromatography………………………… 71 
3.6Anti-inflammatory activity test. …………………… 72

CHAPTER FOUR
Result…………………………………………………………….75

CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion………………………………………………………79
Conclusion………………………………………………………81
References……………………………………………………….82
Appendixes………………………………………………87
 
INTRODUCTION 
Inflammation is one of body’s natural ways of protecting itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).

Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005). Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. 







Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Save
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-dichloromethane-fraction-of-methhanol-extract-of-crateva-adansonii-4257

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-dichloromethane-fraction-of-methhanol-extract-of-crateva-adansonii-4257. Accessed 08 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 08 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-dichloromethane-fraction-of-methhanol-extract-of-crateva-adansonii-4257 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII" Afribary (2018). Accessed February 08, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-analysis-and-the-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-dichloromethane-fraction-of-methhanol-extract-of-crateva-adansonii-4257