Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum (Case Alpiniaceae)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

CERTIFICATION ... ... ... ... ... ... &

DEDICATION ... ... ... ... ... ...

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... .... ... ... ...

ABSTRACT ... .... ... ... ... ... ...

TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ... ... ... ...

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Aims of study ... .+. ,.. ...

1.2 Botanic Profile and Functional Properties of Deltrrrtin~ Micr-octrrprrm

1.3 Microorganisnl arid Diseases.. . ... ... ... ... . ,.

1.4 Phytochemicals ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

1.5 Anti-parasitic Properties of Tcrpenoids ...... .., ... ,..

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Phytochemistry and Dcttrr-lrirrr Microcrrrprrrr Analysis ...... ..,

Metliods of Extraction ... ,.. .., ... ... ... ...

Chromatograph Methods of Isolatior~ ... ... ... ... ...

Adsorption Solid - Liquid Colun~n Chron~atography, LC. ... ...

Thin - Layer Cliro~nalography. TLC. ... ... ... ...

Gas Liauid Chromatoemliv. GLC. ... ... ... ... ...

i

i i

iii

iv

V

vi

3

3

5

6

14

17

18

19

19

2 0

2 1

2.4 Classification of Anitmicrobial Agents .......

2.4.1 Anitbacterial Agcnts .... ... ... ...

2.4.2 Anti fungal Agents .... ... ... ...

CHAPTER THREE

EXPERIMENTAL

Materials and Methods ... ... ... ...

Apparatus and Materials .... ... ...

Reagents and Solvents . ... ... ...

Origin and Preparation of Plant Material .......

Extraction and Co~icentratio~i ofMaterials ....

Anitmicrobial Screening on Extracts of Morphological Parts and

Standard Dmgs . ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Micro.organisms .... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Culture Media ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Anitiniicrobial Sensitivity Tcst ... ... ... ... ... ...

Fractionation of Stem Bark Extract into Solvent Fractions .... ...

Exhaustive Solvent Extraction of Dettrritrnt Microctrrprnl Stem Bark ..

Exhaustive Washing of Metlianolic Extract .... ... ... ...

Anitiniicrobiai Tests on Ethyl Acetate Soluble and I~isoluble FTractions ... 3 1

Phytochemical Test on Stem Bark Extracts of Detarium Microcarpurn ... 32

Thin - Layer Chromatograpliy on Ethyl Acetate- Soluble Fraction ... 3 2

Trial Analytical ?'LC .... ... ... ... ... ... 32

Preparative TLC . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 32

3.7.3 Isolation of Fractionated Spots . ... ... ... ... ...

3.8 Anitiniicrobial Screening of the TLC Fractions .... ... ...

3.0 Anitimjcrobial Sct-ccning of Varied Concentration of TLC Fractions

With Significant Activity .... ... ...

3.10 Phytochemical Test on TLC Bands .... ...

3.1 . 1 Ultraviolet and Visible Spectral Determination .

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Results ... ... ... ... ... ...

Discussions .... ... ... ... ...

Yield of Methanolic Exlracts of Stem Bark ....

Pllytochcniical Rcsults of Skm Bark Solvent Extracts .

TLC Fractionation of tlic Most Active Solvent Extract and

Phytochemical Results ....... ... ... ... ...

Relative Aniiimicrobial Activiiy of Plant Parts and Solvent Fraction ...

Relative MIC's of Signi ficaritly Sensitive TLC Bands ... ...

The Rf Values of the TLC Bands .... ... ... ... ...

Ultraviolet/Vkible Spectroscopy and Extract Determination ... ...

Conclusion ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

APPENDlCES ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

REFERENCE ...


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APA

Nwaorgu, N (2022). Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum (Case Alpiniaceae). Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-the-stem-bark-of-detarium-microcarpum-case-alpiniaceae

MLA 8th

Nwaorgu, Nnamdi "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum (Case Alpiniaceae)" Afribary. Afribary, 18 Oct. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-the-stem-bark-of-detarium-microcarpum-case-alpiniaceae. Accessed 18 Apr. 2024.

MLA7

Nwaorgu, Nnamdi . "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum (Case Alpiniaceae)". Afribary, Afribary, 18 Oct. 2022. Web. 18 Apr. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-the-stem-bark-of-detarium-microcarpum-case-alpiniaceae >.

Chicago

Nwaorgu, Nnamdi . "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of the Stem Bark of Detarium Microcarpum (Case Alpiniaceae)" Afribary (2022). Accessed April 18, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/phytochemical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-the-stem-bark-of-detarium-microcarpum-case-alpiniaceae