PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.

ABSTRACT
This work was carried out to investigate the effects of Burantashi extract on liver enzymes of albino male and female whistar rats. Burantashi is a popular seasoning agent to barbecued meat (suya) in Nigeria,mostly found in the northern part of the Nigeria. Liver Enzymes are those enzymes that plays important role in the liver both in function and regulation. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the consistent or recurrent inability of a man to attain or maintain penile erection, sufficient for sexual activity (2nd) International consultation on sexual Dysfunction Paris, June 28th July 1st, 2003). Following the discovery and introduction of Burantashi research on the mechanism underlying penile erection, has had an enormous boost and many preclinical and clinical papers have been published in the last five years on the peripheral regulation of, and the mediators involved in human penile erection. The most widely accepted risk factors for ED are discussed. The research is focused on human data and the safety and effectiveness of Burantasni Stem as a phosphodiesterase -5- Inhibitors (PDE-5) used to treat Erectile Dysfunctions.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
List of Tables vi
List Figures vii
Table of Content viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Physiology of Erection 1
1.2 Hormonal Involvement In Erection 2
1.3 Mechanism of Action of PDE. 5 Inhibition In erectile Dysfunction 3
1.4 Nitric Oxide Regulation of Penile Erection 6
1.5 Atieology of Erectile Dysfunction 8
1.6 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 9
1.7 Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Females 10
1.8 Aim of Study 11

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review 12
2.1 Literature Review on Male Erectile Dysfunction (ED) 12
2.1.1 Anatomy of the Penis 12
2.1.2 How Erection Occur in Males 13
2.1.3 How Erection is Sustained 13
2.1.4 Causes of Erectile Dysfunction in Males 14
2.1.5 Physical Causes of ED in Males 14
2.1.6 Psychological Causes of ED in Males 19
2.1.7 Diagnosis of Erectile Dysfunction 20
2.1.8 Patient History 20
2.1.9 Physical Examination 22
2.1.10 Laboratory test 22
2.1.11 Psychological Examination 23
2.1.12 Treatment of Males Impotence 23
2.2 Literature Review on Female Erectile Dysfunction 34
2.2.1 Anatomy of the Female External Genitalia 34
2.2.2 How Women Attain Clitoral Erection 36
2.2.3 Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.4 Physical Causes of ED in Females 36
2.2.5 Psychological Causes of ED in Females 39
2.2.6 Diagnosis of Females Erectile Dysfunction 40
2.2.7 Treatment of Female Erectile Dysfunction 40
2.3 Literature Review on Burantashi (Pausinystaliajohimbe) 41
2.3.1 Specie Identity 41
2.3.2 Taxonomy 41
2.3.3 History 42
2.3.4 Mechanism of Action 42
2.3.5 Botanic Description 43
2.3.6 Ecology and Distribution 44
2.3.7 Propagation and Management 44
2.3.8 Tree Management 45
2.3.9 Germplasm Management 45
2.3.10 Functional Uses 45
2.3.11 Medicinal Uses 46
2.3.12 Pests and Diseases 47
2.4 The Liver 47
2.4.1 Anatomy of the Liver 47
2.4.2 Histology 48
2.4.3 Structure of the Liver 50
2.4.4 Function of The Liver 54
2.4.5 Liver Infections/ Diseases 56
2.4.6 Liver Enzymes/ Functions 61
2.4.7 Alanine Transaminase (AIT) 62
2.4.8 Aspartate Transaminase (AST) 62
2.4.9 Alkatine Phosphatase (AIP) 63
2.4.10 Total Bilirubin (TBIL) 63
2.4.11 Birect Bilirubin (Conjugated Bilirubin) 63
2.4.12 Gamma GlutamylTranspeptidase (GGT) 64
2.4.13 5’ Nucleotidase (5’ NTD) 64
2.4.14 Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) 64
2.5 Phytochemicals 65
2.5.1 Functions of Phytochemicals 65

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials 71
3.1 Method 75

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Result 83

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion and Conclusion 89
5.1 Discussion 89
5.2 Conclusion 89
References
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APA

Raji, A. (2018). PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-investigation-on-effects-of-burantashi-extract-on-liver-enzymes-of-aibino-male-and-female-whistar-rats-3043

MLA 8th

Raji, Alex "PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS." Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-investigation-on-effects-of-burantashi-extract-on-liver-enzymes-of-aibino-male-and-female-whistar-rats-3043. Accessed 23 May. 2024.

MLA7

Raji, Alex . "PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS.". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 23 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-investigation-on-effects-of-burantashi-extract-on-liver-enzymes-of-aibino-male-and-female-whistar-rats-3043 >.

Chicago

Raji, Alex . "PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON EFFECTS OF BURANTASHI EXTRACT ON LIVER ENZYMES OF AIBINO MALE AND FEMALE WHISTAR RATS." Afribary (2018). Accessed May 23, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/preliminary-investigation-on-effects-of-burantashi-extract-on-liver-enzymes-of-aibino-male-and-female-whistar-rats-3043

Document Details
Field: Biochemistry Type: Project 98 PAGES (17345 WORDS) (pdf)