PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GBOKO, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

ILESANMI OLATUBOSUN VICTOR ADENUGBA OLUWAKEMISOLA 82 PAGES (14765 WORDS) Dissertation
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more

Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is a major public health problem in Nigeria. It was declared a national emergency in 2006 after which an emergency plan for the control of TB in Nigeria was developed. The country is currently ranked 10th among the 22 high TB burden countries in the world. Tuberculosis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV/AIDS. Benue state is the highest HIV endemic state in Nigeria and investigation of tuberculosis cases and Mycobacterial resistance patterns are needed. A retrospective study with a review of reports of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prevalence in Gboko, Benue state was carried out from January, 2019 to June, 2019 in Gboko General Hospital, Gboko by the staining techniques and Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF system. Pulmonary tuberculosis was detected in 18.2% (n=54/296) of the total sample. Rifampicin resistance of 3.4% (10/296) was detected with an HIV/MTB co-infection rate of 4.4% (13/296) of the pulmonary tuberculosis positive cases detected with a total of 27% (80/296) of the test population positive for HIV. (X 2 = 6.51; p<0.05). Mean age was 30 years and there was no significant statistical difference in gender. Rifampicin resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is prevalent in Gboko, Benue state, Nigeria especially, in the young adults. Therefore, laboratory facilities for rapid diagnosis of M. tuberculosis should be scaled up across the state to facilitate early detection and treatment of MTB in Gboko and her environs. It was also observed that there was a high rate of MDR-TB and TB/HIV co-infection in the state. These factors could generate new challenges, complicate treatment greatly, and make it difficult to eliminate TB. More attention should be given to financing the development of new TB drugs by governments and other institutions. There should be maximal involvement of public, volunteer and private providers through public-private mix approaches in order to ensure continuous supply of anti-TB drugs.


TABLE OF CONTENTS i.

 Title page …………………………………………………….………………………..i ii. Certification........................................................................…………………………..ii iii. Acknowledgements...........................................................…………………………...iii iv. Dedication.................................................................................................................... iv 

v. Table of contents.......................................................................................................v-vii vi. Abstracts………………………………………………………………………………viii

CHAPTER ONE 1.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................1 

1.2. Scope of the study……………………………………………………………………….2 

1.3. Statement of problem.......................................................................................................2

 1.4. Significance and justification of study……………………………………….…………3 

1.5. Aims and Objectives of the study..………………………………………..……………4


CHAPTER TWO 2.0. Literature review ………............................................................................................. 5 2.1.History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection..........................................................5 

2.2. Pathogenicity and physiological characteristics……………………………………… 7 

2.3.Mode of Infection …………………………………………………………… ……… 9 

2.4. Tuberculosis signs and symptoms …………………………………………………….11

 2.5.Diagnosis of Tuberculosis…………………………………………………….………..11

 2.5.1. AFB smear microscopy……………………………………………………...... 12

 2.5.2. Nucleic acid Amplification methods…………………………………………. 15 

2.6.GeneXpert MTB/RIF…………………………..……………………………………... 16

 2.7.Global Epidemiology……………………………………………………….………….19 

2.8.Tuberculosis prevalence in Nigeria…………………………………………….......... 26

vii 2.9. Tuberculosis incidence in Benue …………………………………………………. 28 

2.10. Drug resistant TB in Nigeria ……………………………………………………..30 

2.11. TB- Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome. ……………. 31 

2.12. Factors contributing to treatment failure……………………………………..…. 32

 2.13. TB management in Nigeria……………………………………………….…….. 33 

2.14. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infections ……………………………………..…...... 36


CHAPTER THREE 3.0. The Subject and Methodology............................................................................. 38 

3.1. Background of the study…………………………………………………………38 

3.2. Study area……………..…………………………………………………….……40

 3.3. Population of the study……………………………………………………..……40

 3.4. Ethical consideration……………. ………………………………………..…….40

 3.5. Procedure for sampling collection….……..…….…………………………..…. 40 

3.6. HIV and serology………………….…………..………………………………....41 

3.7. Smear test……………………….…………..………………………………….…41

 3.8. GeneXpert system ………………………...……………………………………...42

 3.9. Statistical analysis …………………………………………………………………43


CHAPTER FOUR 4.0.Results.................................................................................................................... 44


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0.Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations 

5.1.Discussion ............................................................................................................... 60 6.0.Conclusion............................................................................................................,...63 7.0.Recommendations................................................................................................…64 

8.0.References ........................................................................................................,..... 65


Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

ILESANMI, O (2020). PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GBOKO, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 08, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-gboko-benue-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

OLATUBOSUN VICTOR, ILESANMI. "PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GBOKO, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 30 Nov. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-gboko-benue-state-nigeria . Accessed 08 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

OLATUBOSUN VICTOR, ILESANMI. "PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GBOKO, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 30 Nov. 2020. Web. 08 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-gboko-benue-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

OLATUBOSUN VICTOR, ILESANMI. "PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN GBOKO, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed March 08, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-gboko-benue-state-nigeria