EFFECT OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitellaria paradoxa) RICHDIET ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS

Habila Albert 61 PAGES (15128 WORDS) Project
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Abstract 

The effect of Shea butter rich diet on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats was determined. Thirty (30) male and female albino rats grouped into 6 (normal, negative, positive, 10%, 20% and 30% Shea butter rich diet groups respectively) of 5 rats each were used for the study. Phytochemical analysis was carried out on the Shea butter used for this study which revealed the presence of saponin, tannin, alkaloid, terpenoid, flavonoid, and reducing sugar, while coumarin was absent. Nephrotoxicity was induced in all the various groups apart from the normal control by daily intraperitoneal administration of 80mg/kg body weight of gentamicin for 7 days. The induced nephrotoxicity was marked by elevated levels of serum urea (15.90±0.17) and creatinine (129.23±0.46), serum sodium (153.67±1.45), potassium (15.07±0.18), chloride (115.07±0.15) and bicarbonate ions (27.05±0.13) in the negative (untreated) group compared to the normal group (5.23±0.12 urea and 90.03±0.15 creatinine, 133.00±1.15 Na, 5.20±0.15 K, 100.33±0.88 Cl and 20.20±0.15 HCO3 ions respectively). Significantly lower levels of serum urea (11.37±0.20 in 10%, 9.01±0.69 in 20% and 7.23±0.19 in the 30% Shea groups) and creatinine (120.13±0.72 in the 10%, 111.53±0.33 in the 20% and 103.17±0.18 in the 30% Shea groups respectively) were observed following treatment with Shea butter rich diet. Lower levels of serum sodium (146.77±0.91 in the 10%, 141.67±0.45 in the 20% and 137.83±0.17 in the 30% group), potassium (11.03±0.15 in 10%, 9.03±0.09 in 20% and 6.80±0.15 in 30%), chloride (113.00±1.15 in 10%, 109.33±0.68 in 20% and 104.77±0.19 in 30%) and bicarbonate ions (26.83±0.12 in 10%, 24.10± 0.12 in 20% and 23.40±0.26 in 30% Shea groups) were also observed across all Shea butter diet treated groups in a dose dependent manner compared to the negative control. From the result of the study, Shea butter rich diet is effective in ameliorating gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

Table of content
Title page.i
Certificationii
Dedication..iii
Acknowledgement..iv
Abstractv



CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 Background 3
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Aim and Objectives 5

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 kidney 6
2.2 Kidney Functions 6
2.3 Kidney Diseases 7
2.3.1 Acute Kidney Disease 7
2.3.2 Chronic Kidney Disease 7
2.4. Causes of Kidney Disease 9
2.4.3 Glomerulonephritis 10
2.4.4 Inherited & Congenital Disorders such as Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) 10
2.4.5 Autoimmune Diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus) 11
2.4.6 Nephrotoxic Agents 11
2.5 Markers of Renal Function Test 11
2.5.1 Creatinine 12
2.5.2 Urea 12
2.5.3 Electrolyte 12
2.6 Gentamicin 13
2.6.1 Mechanism of Action of Gentamicin 13
2.7 Furosemide 14
2.9 Ecology of Shea Tree 16
2.10 Chemical Composition of Shea Butter 17
2.11 The Effect and Uses of Shea and Shea Products 18

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD 22
3.1 MATERIALS 22
3.1.1 Equipment 22
3.1.2 Chemicals 22
3.1.3 Reagents 22
3.1.5 Plant material 22
3.2 METHODOLOGY 23
3.2.1 Animal maintenance 23
3.2.2 Formulation of shea butter rich diet 23
3.2.3 Induction of Nephrotoxicity 23
3.2.4 Preparation of oil extract 23
3.3 Phytochemical Screening of Shea butter 24
3.3.1 Test for alkaloids 24
3.3.2 Test for saponins 24
3.3.3 Test for reducing sugars 24
3.3.4 Test for flavonoids 24
3.3.5 Test for Tanins 24
3.3.6 Test for terpenoids 25
3.3.7 Test for coumarins 25
3.3 Experimental Design 27
3.4 Biochemical Assay/Analysis 27
3.4.1 Estimation of Creatinine 28
3.4.2 Estimation of Urea 29
3.4.4 Determination of Chloride Ion 31
3.5 Statistical analysis 31

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULT 32

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION 37
5.1 CONCLUSION. 40
5.2 RECOMMENDATION 40
REFERENCES...................40

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APA

Habila, A (2018). EFFECT OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitellaria paradoxa) RICHDIET ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 11, 2018, from https://afribary.com/works/project-p-copy-copy-1

MLA 8th

Albert, Habila. "EFFECT OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitellaria paradoxa) RICHDIET ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 28 Nov. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/project-p-copy-copy-1 . Accessed 11 Dec. 2018.

MLA7

Albert, Habila. "EFFECT OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitellaria paradoxa) RICHDIET ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 28 Nov. 2018. Web. 11 Dec. 2018. < https://afribary.com/works/project-p-copy-copy-1 >.

Chicago

Albert, Habila. "EFFECT OF SHEA BUTTER (Vitellaria paradoxa) RICHDIET ON GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN RATS" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed December 11, 2018. https://afribary.com/works/project-p-copy-copy-1