REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL

ABSTRACT
This project was carried out using acid activated coal from Enugu coal and the production of ve4getablew oil was monitored using spectrophotometer to measure the absorbance. It was also perform to check the suitability of activated Enugu coal as a bleaching agent for palm oil.
The Enugu coal samples were collected, size reduced, carbonized and activated with acid (phosphoric Acid) before being used for the bleaching process. The bleaching process lasted for 40minutes and it was absorbed that activated coal is a poor absorber of palm oil.
From the result obtained, it was observed t6hat at different temperature rang of 120oc, 150oc and 180oc of 10g of activated coal mixed with 100ml of palm oil, that the co lour absorbance were 1.65, 1.2 and 0.4 respectively. The optimum amount of 10g at bleaching temperatur4e of 180ocfound to be the best for better bleaching.
It was observed that as the temperature increase, the pe4rcentage colour reduction of the oil increase. Beside, it was observed that the smaller the particle size of the activated coal samples, the higher their effect on the oil and the higher the percentage colour reduction. 

TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
DEDICATION 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.1INTRODUCTION
1.2SCOPE/OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO:LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0HISTORY OF PALM OIL
2.1PROCESSING OF PALM OIL
2.2CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PALM OIL
2.2.1CAROTENES
2.2.2FATTY ACIDS
2.2.3PHOSPHOLIPIDS (PHOSPHATIDES)
2.2.4GUMS
2.3CHARACTERISTICS OF PALM OIL
2.3.1SPOILAGE FACTORS OF PALM OIL
2.3.2PREVE4NRTIVE MEASURES
2.4REFINING OF CRUDE PALM OIL
2.4.1DEGUMMING
2.4.2NEUTRALISATION
2.4.3BLEACHING 
2.4.4BLEACHABILITY OF PALM OIL
2.4.5CHEMICAL BLEACHING
2.4.6AERATION BLEACHYING 
2.4.7BLEACHING BY ADSORPTION
2.5.0ADSORPTION
2.5.1TYPES OF ADSORPTION
2.52APPLI8CATION OF ADSORPTION PROCESS
2.53NATURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.4STRUCTURE OF ADSORBENT
2.5.5ADSORPTION EQUIPMENT
2.6COAL AS AN ADSORBENT
2.6.1MECHANISM OF COAL FORMATION
2.7 TYPES OF COAL AND ITS PROPERTIES
2.7.1COAL RANK AND CLASSIFICATION BY RANK
2.7.2CLASSIFICATION OF COAL
2.7.3PROPERTIES OF COAL COMMONLY 
USED IN CLASSIFICATION
2.7.4PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OFT COAL
2.7.5CAKING ANDR COKING PROPERTIES
2.76CALORIFIC VALUE
2.77ACTIVATED CARBON 
2.78CHEMICAL PROPERTIESOF COAL
2.79COAL CARBONIZATION
2.80ADSORPTION PARAMETERS OF ACTIVATED CARBON

CHAPTER THREE
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
3.10 MATERIAL TREATEMENT 
3.11 CARBONIZATION OF COAL
3.12 COAL ACTIVATED
3.13 PERCENTAGE APPEARENT POPOSITY OF ACTIVATED COLA
3.34 TREATMENT OF PALM OIL
3.15 BLEACHING OPERATTION
3.16 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING 
3.17 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SWIZE ON BLEACHING
3.18 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF BLEACHING OIL 
TEST FOR SPECIFIC GRAVITY
TEST FOR ACID VALUE
TEST FOR SAPONIFICATION VALUE
TEST FOR IODINE VALUE
 
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 EXPERIMENNTAL RESULT
4.1 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON BLEACHING
     SPECIFIC GRAVITY VALUE
    ACID VALUE
     SAPONIFICATION VALUE
      IODINE VALUE

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 DISCUSSION
5.2 CONCLUTION/RECOMMENDATION

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APA

Kings, S. (2018). REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/refining-of-vegetable-oil-with-enugu-coal-8801

MLA 8th

Kings, Solomon "REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/refining-of-vegetable-oil-with-enugu-coal-8801. Accessed 18 May. 2024.

MLA7

Kings, Solomon . "REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 18 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/refining-of-vegetable-oil-with-enugu-coal-8801 >.

Chicago

Kings, Solomon . "REFINING OF VEGETABLE OIL WITH ENUGU COAL" Afribary (2018). Accessed May 18, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/refining-of-vegetable-oil-with-enugu-coal-8801

Document Details
Field: Chemical Engineering Type: Project 80 PAGES (11584 WORDS) (doc)