SOAP PRODUCTION

ABSTRACT
The aim of this seminar is soap production. Due to societal demands on cleaning agent to promote her hygienic conditions leads to research on how to produce soap which is one of the cleaning agent to meet the demands. Also in order to earn living through the out-come (financially) from the soap produced , many life can be enriched in the society.
The process of soap production include”: cold process and hot process. The cold process of soap production requires measurement of lye and fats amounts and computing their ratio, using saponification chart to ensure that the finished product does not contain any excess hydroxide or too much free from unreacted fat. Where as, in hot process, the processed soaps are created by encouraging the saponification reaction by adding heat to the reaction, which speed the reaction. Unlike cold  processed soap, in hot process soaping the oils are completely  saponified by the end of the handling period. The materials used in soap production are fatty chemicals which include ester compounds or organic acids with alcohol and nonfatty chemical that include caustic soda which is the major caustic alkali used in converting fat or oil into soap. Some instrument of production are: reactor, paddle, measuring bucket, crucible, mould and table among others,

However, considering all the processes of production, it has been discovered that cold process is the cheapest and easiest process. But when any of this processes mention above  is properly used with the availability of the production material in an normal proportion material in a normal proportion, a good quality of soap will be produced which will go a long way in solving societal problem .
 

INTRODUCTION 
BRIEF HISTORY OF SOAP
Soap and its production has been a thing of trial and error method in the past, as a result of little knowledge about the composition of fats and oil, with  its chemistry of reaction. Modernly, more excellent control of soap production process is used but still remains an art acquired by training and experience.
Actually soap was never discovered by gradually evolved from crude mixtures of alkaline and fatty materials.
Until thirteenth century that soap was produced in a larger quantities to call it an industry, Elder phony described the soap production of both hard and soft soap in the first century. It was believed that soap production was done through mechanical mixture of fat and alkali.
A French chemist, called chevron showed that soap formation or production was a chemical reaction furtherly, Domeier carried out  a research in the recovery of glycerin from saponification mixtures in the period until leblanic is coverd lower producing price sodium carbonate from sodium chloride, the  alkali required was obtained by the crude leaching of wood ash or from the evaporation of natural occurring alkaline water e.g the nile River. The existence of soap factory revealed by pompeli excavations which states that the industry has been in existence since 2000 years ago.
During late eighteenth (18th) century and early nineteenth (19th) century, the separation of soap from the glycerine and other impurities, using technique was facilitated.
As a result of First World War led by Germans, synthetic soap or detergent was developed due to shortage of raw materials.
In 1945, sharples and lever brother developed and install jointly saponification process, is Procter and gamble installed a high pressure-hydrolysis that is a continuous neutralization process in the year 1937.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). SOAP PRODUCTION. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/soap-production-1903

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "SOAP PRODUCTION" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/soap-production-1903. Accessed 19 May. 2024.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "SOAP PRODUCTION". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 19 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/soap-production-1903 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "SOAP PRODUCTION" Afribary (2018). Accessed May 19, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/soap-production-1903

Document Details
Field: Chemical Engineering Type: Seminar 25 PAGES (4020 WORDS) (doc)