THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL

ABSTRACT
This project work is on the bleaching of palm oil using activated charcoal.
The charcoal used for this work was made from pieces of animal bone by carbonization method.  It was then activated into two different samples.  Firstly, the basic sample was activated using anaphoric acid (H2 s04) while the other was activated by just heating as a control for the experiment; both at a constant temperature of 5000c and approximate time of 2hours.

They were both size reduced into fines and sieved into particle 3ye of 150um portion of the crude palm oil was degummed and neutralized for bleaching.  Each interval of bleaching with both the acid activated and the ordinary activated charcoal was 8mins and temperature of 1500c over a hot plate, and subsequent filtration of the solution.

A spectrophotometer was used to measure the absorbance of the oils (crude and bleached) at selected wave length of 480Um.  This was converted as the degree of colour reduction expressed in percentages.

Results obtained showed that optimum quantity of the charcoal for bleaching is 5% by weight, of the oil, which gives a percentage colour reduction as 97. 14% for the acid activated and 93.57% for the calcinated sample.

Also, the characterization of both the original  oil and the bleaching oil showed that the later has appreciable properties.  Hence colour reduction was observable by naked eyes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval Page
Letter of Transmittal 
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Chapter one
1.0Introduction
1.1Preamble 
1.2Objective
1.3Scope of study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0Literature Review
2.1.0Chemical composition of palm oil 
2.1.1Carotenes
2.1.2Phosphatides
2.1.3Gums
2.1.4Compositions and standards of palm oil 
2.2.0Spoilage factors of palm oil
2.2.1Preventive measures
2.2.2Inhibitors
2.3.0Refining of creebe palm oil
2.3.1Degumming 
2.3.2Neutralization
2.3.3Bleaching
2.3.4Deodorization
2.3.5Chemical bleaching method
2.3.6Accretion bleaching
2.3.7Bleaching by adsorption 
2.4.0Adsorption
2.4.1Uses of adsorption
2.5.2Physical adsorption 
2.5.2Chemisorptions
2.6.0Adsorbents
2.6.1Bauxite
2.6.2Decolourising carbons
2.6.3Gas-adsorbent carbon
2.6.4Molecular screening activated carbon
2.6.5Synthetic polymeric adsorbents 
2.6.6Silica Gel
2.6.7Alumna
2.6.8Bone char.
2.7.0Charcoal
2.7.1Properties of charcoal 
2.7.2Activated charcoal
2.7.3Methods of charcoal activation 
2.7.4Properties of activated charcoal
2.7.5Chemical properties of activated charcoal 
2.7.6  Physical properties of activated charcoal
2.7.7Uses of activated charcoal 

CHAPTER THREE
3.0Experimental method
3.1.0Materials
3.1.1Material treatment 
3.2.0Charcoal activation using acid
3.2.1Charcoal activation by heat treatment
3.3.0Degumming of Palm oil
3.3.1Neutralization 
3.4.0Bleaching of palm oil
3.4.1Experimental set-up
3.5.0Characterization of palm oil
3.5.1Specific gravity 
3.5.2Iodine value
3.5.3Free fatty acid
3.5.4Saponification value
3.5.5Esterification value
3.5.6Process flow chart

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0Experimental result 
4.1.0Effect of bleaching sample
4.2.0Effect of temperature on bleaching
4.3.0Colour observation at absorbance 
4.4.0Concise table for characterization 

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0Discussion 

CHAPTER SIX
6.0Conclusion

CHAPTER SEVEN
7.0Recommendation
References 
Table of nomenclature
Appendices 

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-bleaching-of-palm-oil-using-activated-charcoal-2139

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-bleaching-of-palm-oil-using-activated-charcoal-2139. Accessed 13 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 13 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-bleaching-of-palm-oil-using-activated-charcoal-2139 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "THE BLEACHING OF PALM OIL USING ACTIVATED CHARCOAL" Afribary (2018). Accessed June 13, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-bleaching-of-palm-oil-using-activated-charcoal-2139