THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS.

Abstract
Present investigations were carried out on the effect of ethanol extract of Desmodium velutinum stem on some liver enzymes of albino wistar rats fed with high fat from cow‟s brain. Twelve healthy albino wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I rats were fed with balanced diet (normal feed, that is grower‟s mash) and tap water. Group II rats were fed with fat diet (cow‟s brain) (3.6g/day) alone. Group III rats received combined mixture of 70% fat diet (cow‟s brain) with 30% ethanol extract of Desmoduim elutinum stem (2.7g/day), Group IV rats were fed with fat diet (cow‟s brain) and were administered with a drug atorvastatin (5mg/rat/day). The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental (two weeks) period. The plant extract was screened for its phytochemical constituents, using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. The liver function tests was assessed by measuring the total bilirubin, total serum protein, direct and indirect bilirubin and liver enzymes such as Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alkaline phosphate (ALP), Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) on the liver of the albino wistar rat. The serum, ALT, ALP, AST and bilirubin concentration of the albino wistar rat increased significantly (P>0.05) compared to their total protein concentration. The result obtained indicate that the ethanol extract of Desmodium Velutinum stem possess hepatoprotective activity on the fatty liver of albino wistar rat fed with fat from cow‟s brain. The studied plant showed variable amount of phytochemicals including flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, tannins, terpenoid which were determined quantitatively using literature methods. The significant effect of the Desmodium velutinum stem ethanol extract was compared with standard drug, atorvastatin. The result in the present study suggest that the ethanol extract of Desmodium velutinum stem can be used in treating liver diseases.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - - I
APPROVAL PAGE - - - - - - - II
DEDICATION - - - - - - - - III
ACKNOWLEDGMENT - - - - - - IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS - - - - - - V
LIST OF TABLE - - - - - - - - VI
LIST OF FIGURE - - - - - - - - VII
ABSTRACT - - - - - - - - VIII

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - 1

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW- - - - - - 4
2.1 TAXONOMY OF PLANT (DESMODIUM VELUTINUM) 4
2.2 LIVER- - - - - - - - - 10
2.3 WHAT THE LIVER DOES - - - - - 10
2.4 LIVER FUNCTION TEST/MARKER ENZYMES - 11
2.5 LIVER MARKERS ENZYMES (AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, LDH) 13
2.6 USES OF LIVER FUNCTION TEST - - - - 17
2.7 ATORVASTATIN - - - - - - 18
2.8 PHYTOCHEMICALS - - - - - - 20
2.9 TYPES OF PHYTOCHEMICALS - - - - 21

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS - - - - 24
3.1 IDENTIFICATION AND EXTRACTION OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM PLANTS - - - - - - 26
3.2 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS - - - - 27
3.3 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODEL - - - 31
3.4 COLLECTION OF BLOOD SAMPLES - - - 32
3.5 PROCEDURES FOR CARRYING OUT LIVER FUNCTION TESTS - - - - - -- - 33

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS (PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SAMPLES) - - - - 37
4.1 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS (QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMISTRY) - - - - -- - 37
4.2 LIVER FUNCTION TEST OF RATS FEED WITH VARIOUS SAMPLES - - - - - - - - 38

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION - - -- - - - 39
5.2 CONCLUSION - - - - - - - 44
REFERENCES - - - - - - 46
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APA

Raji, A. (2018). THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-ethanol-extract-of-desmodium-velutinum-stem-on-some-marker-emzyme-in-liver-of-albino-wistar-rats-1526

MLA 8th

Raji, Alex "THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS." Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-ethanol-extract-of-desmodium-velutinum-stem-on-some-marker-emzyme-in-liver-of-albino-wistar-rats-1526. Accessed 24 May. 2024.

MLA7

Raji, Alex . "THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS.". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 24 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-ethanol-extract-of-desmodium-velutinum-stem-on-some-marker-emzyme-in-liver-of-albino-wistar-rats-1526 >.

Chicago

Raji, Alex . "THE EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM VELUTINUM STEM ON SOME MARKER EMZYME IN LIVER OF ALBINO WISTAR RATS." Afribary (2018). Accessed May 24, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-ethanol-extract-of-desmodium-velutinum-stem-on-some-marker-emzyme-in-liver-of-albino-wistar-rats-1526

Document Details
Field: Biochemistry Type: Project 46 PAGES (5564 WORDS) (pdf)