Application of Chemometric Technique in the Determination of the Chemical Facies of Groundwater Pollution Assessment in the Shallow Marine Aquiferous Sandstone in Udi and Environs

MATTHEW NNAMANI 96 PAGES (12590 WORDS) Project
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
ABSTRACT
This paper examines the hydrochemical facies of groundwater present in the shallow marine Plain Sands aquifer of Udi and its immediate environs, maps their areal distribution and attempts to explain the controlling processes responsible for the various facies. 12 water samples were collected from wells tapping the shallow marine Plain Sands aquifer of Udi and environs and analyzed for various parameters including pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, NO3, Fe, Pb, TH, Acidity, EC, HCO3 and SO4 after standard procedures. The data obtained were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. Four factors were extracted. Factor 1 includes TDS, Ca, Cl, NO3, HCO3, Fe, TH, and EC reflects the signature of the pollution factor resulting from seepages into the aquifer of water from the tide-influenced Ajali River and Ama Brewery pollution factor. Factor 2 has high loading values of Mg, NO3 and K and represents the processes of natural rainwater recharge and water-soil/rock interaction. Factor 3 includes SO4 and can be related to the dissolution of sulphides from interstratified peat within the geological formation, heavy vehicular activity and the brewery process in the town. A broad zone of groundwater interaction (mixing) between water species represented by factors 1 and 2 is thus created towards the riverbanks. The implication of this is that ionic concentration in the water decreases away from the banks of the river an indication that the quality of groundwater improves away from the river. Factor 3 is enhanced in the southeastern portion of the town where it is deemed to be caused by the dissolution by groundwater of sulphur bearing minerals within the geological Formation, and also in the central and northwestern portions of the town were it could be related to the rain-dissolution of sulphur bearing compounds from gaseous emanations arising from vehicles and the brewery industrial process respectively, which eventually, as acid-rain recharges aquifers in the vicinity. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of factor analysis in evaluating hydrochemical processes in Swamp and industrial areas
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
APPROVAL PAGE II
DEDICATION III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT IV
ABSTRACTS V
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
LIST OF FIGURES X
LIST OF TABLES XI
LIST OF PLATES xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Locations and extent 1
1.2 Geography 2
1.2.1 Vegetation 2
1.2.2 Mangrove Swamp Forest 2
1.2.3 Tropical Rain Forest 3
1.2.4 Derived Savanna Woodland 3
1.2.5 Soil 4
1.3 Literature Review 4
1.4 Objectives of the Study 8
1.5 Study Methodology 8
1.5.1 Preliminary studies 8
1.5.2 Field Study 9
1.5.3 Laboratory Analysis 9

CHAPTER TWO: GEOLOGIC SETTING 11
2.1 Regional Geography 11
2.1.1 Topography 11
2.1.2 Drainage 11 
2.1.3 Climate 12
2.1.4 Vegetation 14
2.2 Regional Tectonic Setting 15
2.3 Regional Stratigraphy 16

CHAPTER THREE: LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY 22
3.1 Description of Lithologic units 22
3.1.1. The Cross-Bedded Sandstone Units 24
3.1.2 Laminated/Cross-Bedded Sandstone Unit (Ogba-cave) 25   
3.1.3 The Sandstone Unit (Ogwogwo Spring) 26
3.1.4. The Shale Unit 27
3.1.5 Friable Sandstone Units 28
3.2 Sedimentary Structure 30
3.2.1. Cross-Bedding 30
3.2.2 Lamination 30
3.2.3 Biogenic Structure 31
3.2.4 Gully Erosion 31 
3.2.5. Waterfall and Cataract
3.2.6. Springs
3.2.7 Stalactite 34
3.3 Sand sieve analysis 35
3.3.1 Methodology 36
3.3.2 Textural parameters 37
3.3.2.1 Phi scale: 37
3.3.2.2 Mean size (mz) 37  37
3.3.2.3 Sorting () 38
3.3.2.4 Skewness (ski)           38
3.3.2.5 Kurtosis (kg) 39  39
3.4 Results 39
3.4.1 Cumulative curve with a probability ordinate 39
3.4.2 Histogram of the Textural Analysis 43
3.5 Interpretation from textural analysis 44

CHAPTER FOUR: HYDROGEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY 46
4.1 Surface water hydrology 48
4.1.1 Precipitation 48
4.1.2 Runoff/Evapotranspiration 49
4.2 Groundwater hydrology and aquifer systems 51
4.3 Aquifer parameters 52
4.3.1. Hydraulic conductivity (K) 52
4.3.2 Transmissivity 53
4.4 Hydrogeochemistry 55
4.4.1 Physical Analysis 56
4.4.2 Biological Analysis 56
4.4.3. Chemical analysis 57
4.5 Graphical Methods 57

CHAPTER FIVE: MULTIVARIATE STATISTICS TECHNIQUES 65
5.1 Review of multivariate statistical techniques 65
5.1.1 Factor analysis 65
5.2 Materials and methods 67
5.2.1 Sampling and Analytical Procedures 67
5.2.2 Data Treatment and Chemometric Analysis 68
5.3 Results and Discussion 73
5.3.1 Factor analysis 73
5.3.2 Water Quality Index (WQI) 76

CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 79
REFERENCE 81
APPENDICES 85
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF PLATES
Subscribe to access this work and thousands more
Overall Rating

0

5 Star
(0)
4 Star
(0)
3 Star
(0)
2 Star
(0)
1 Star
(0)
APA

MATTHEW, N (2018). Application of Chemometric Technique in the Determination of the Chemical Facies of Groundwater Pollution Assessment in the Shallow Marine Aquiferous Sandstone in Udi and Environs. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 17, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/application-of-chemometric-technique-in-the-determination-of-the-chemical-facies-of-groundwater-pollution-assessment-in-the-shallow-marine-aquiferous-sandstone-in-udi-and-environs-2523

MLA 8th

NNAMANI, MATTHEW. "Application of Chemometric Technique in the Determination of the Chemical Facies of Groundwater Pollution Assessment in the Shallow Marine Aquiferous Sandstone in Udi and Environs" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/application-of-chemometric-technique-in-the-determination-of-the-chemical-facies-of-groundwater-pollution-assessment-in-the-shallow-marine-aquiferous-sandstone-in-udi-and-environs-2523 . Accessed 17 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

NNAMANI, MATTHEW. "Application of Chemometric Technique in the Determination of the Chemical Facies of Groundwater Pollution Assessment in the Shallow Marine Aquiferous Sandstone in Udi and Environs". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 17 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/application-of-chemometric-technique-in-the-determination-of-the-chemical-facies-of-groundwater-pollution-assessment-in-the-shallow-marine-aquiferous-sandstone-in-udi-and-environs-2523 >.

Chicago

NNAMANI, MATTHEW. "Application of Chemometric Technique in the Determination of the Chemical Facies of Groundwater Pollution Assessment in the Shallow Marine Aquiferous Sandstone in Udi and Environs" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed October 17, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/application-of-chemometric-technique-in-the-determination-of-the-chemical-facies-of-groundwater-pollution-assessment-in-the-shallow-marine-aquiferous-sandstone-in-udi-and-environs-2523