Research Papers/Topics in Chemistry

Investigation On Effectiveness Of Natural (Cactus Powder) And Synthetic(Grafted Potato Starch) Materials As Adsorbents For Hardwater Treatment

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of natural and synthetic materials as adsorbents for hard water treatment by using EDTA titrimetric method. Natural adsorbent prepared from cactus and synthetic adsorbent prepared by grafting potato starch and the study conducted on water samples collected from Nzuguni, Ng’ohong’hona, Kisasa and Swaswa in Dodoma municipality. The results revealed that the concentration of hardness decreased as the dose of (Cactus Mate...

The Use Of Extracts From Acacia And Mangrove For The Preservation Of Animal Tissues

ABSTRACTThe oldest system of tanning relies on the chemical action of vegetable materials containing tannin and tannic acid on the protein constituents of skin or hides.

Extraction And Characterization Of Insect Repelling Essential Oil From Plants.A Case Study Chamomile, Garlic And Custard

AbstractPlant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practices as a personalprotection measures against host seeking insects like mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditionalrepellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies, is a valuable resource for thedevelopment of natural and environmental safe products. Recently, commercial repellentscontaining plant based ingredients have gained increasing popularity among customers. Theseare commonly perceived as ‘safe’ in c...

Evaluation Ofselected Management Practices Contributing To Primary Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes In Smallholder Sugarcane Farming In Lower Nyando, Westernkenya

ABSTRACT Human activities (including agriculture) contribute to enhance release of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CH4, CO2, N2O) into the atmosphere leading to global warming. Sugarcane is an important economic crop in Kenya being third highest contributor to gross domestic product (GDP) after tea and coffee. About 90% of Kenya‘s production is contributed by smallholders. To improve/maximize sugarcane yields, farmers convert natural vegetation to sugarcane farms; apply nitrogen fertilizer...

Synthesis And Bioassaye Of Chilo Partellus Female Sex Pheromones And Their Analogues

AbstractSynthetic sex pheromones could provide valuable alternativemeans of pest control in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)strategies. Their uses could include population monitoring withpheromone traps to guide other control methods, by mass trappingand mating disruption.(Z)-ll-Hexadecenal (Z-11-C4Hg CH=CH (CHZ) 9 CHO) and (Z)-llhexadecen-l-ol (Z-ll-C/H",CH=CH(CH1 )oCH10H), the major components of '1 £ J £.spotted stalk borer, Chilo pert el Lue (swinhoe) fernale sexpheromone, were prepared...

Production Of Antiseptic Soap From Psidium Guajava Linn Leaf Extract

ABSTRACT;Amritphala (psidium guajava l) is a small size tree in myrtaceae family, traditionally used in treatment of several diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, hypertension, wounds, pain and fever. When it comes to skin care, the astringents of guava enhance the skin texture and tighten loosened skin. The guava leaves works more effectively than any other skin nourishing lotions in the market. Decoction of immature leaves and fruits can be applied on the skin to prevent tightening and t...

Structural Elucidation Of Compounds From Lonchocarpus Eriocalyx

AbstractPreliminary validation of the extracts for bioactivity revealed that the n-hexane, DCM and MeOH extracts of the stem bark of L. eriocalyx were active against P. falciparum, A. gambie larvae, B. anthracis, and A. niger. This formed the the basis of fractionation of these crude extracts whereby lupeol (27), quercetin (65), apigenin (68) friedelin (133), -sitosterol (134), lupenone (135), -sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (136), chrysin (137) morinhydrate (138), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (13...

Survey Of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes From Different Vegetation, Seasons And Landscape Units In Small Scale Farming Systems In Lower Nyando-Kenya

ABSTRACTGreenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions data from large-scale agricultural activities are available. In developing countries, e.g. Kenya, agriculture is dominated by smallholder farming, data on the assessment of possible contributions of smallholder agriculture to GHG emissions and GHG fluxes data from smallholder farming systems in the tropics is scarce. The study area is a 10 square km area also called the ―Lower Nyando Block‖ in Western Kenya. The basin varies in landscapes (low lan...

The Phytochemistry and the bioactivity of L. eriocalyx, A. ovalifolius and E. abyssinica all belonging to the family Fabaceae

AbstractPreliminary bioassay analysis was done on all parts of the three plants under study as explained in section 4.2.1.The antiplasmodial activity of the DCM extract of the leaves of E. abyssinica was significantly high (p≤0.05) against W2 and D6 clones of P. falciparum with IC50 values 165.1 and 215.1 g/mL, respectively. Similarly, the DCM extract of the stem bark of L. eriocalyx showed high activity (p≤0.05) of 423.0 and 365.2 g/mL against the two clones. Likewise, the DCM extr...

Determination Of Effective Combinations Of Selected Local Materials For Treatment Of Borehole Water And To Compare Their Effeciency With Municipal Water Treatment Technology

ABSTRACTUse of contaminated water risks human lives hence should be treated to meet drinking water quality guidelines. The most applied technique is municipal water treatment technology (MWTT) though inaccessible in peri-urban/rural settings leading to use of untreated water like borehole waters. Desirable water treatment processes need to be developed for provision of portable water. Local materials such as Moringa oleifera seed, activated clay, activated charcoal and natural zeolite have be...

Development Of Faster Technique For The Speciation Of Potentailly Toxic Metals In Soil

Abstract The impact of potentially toxic metals (PTM) on humans and other organisms depends on their concentration, toxicity and bioavailability, which in turn, depend in part on reactivity and solubility. The total concentrations of PTM do not determine the mobility, bioavailability and uptake by plants but the fraction of these metals in soils or sediments, hence the development of sequential extraction method which has been widely used for speciation or fractionation studies. The ...

Survey Of Levels Of Some Heavy Metals In Soil, Sugarcane And Some Sugarcane Products From Muhoroni And South Nyanza Sugar Companies Nucleus Estates, Kenya

ABSTRACTSugarcane is an important cash crop in Kenya. Due to its economic value, efforts are in progress to increase its production. The efforts include intense use of fertilizers, besides the use of high-yielding varieties. The intense use of fertilizers adds heavy metals to the sugarcane growing soils. The sugarcane plants can bioaccumulate heavy metals from soils to levels above safe limits. Metal levels in soil and factors such as soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM) influence levels of ...

Assessment Of The Physicochemical Properties Of Selected Commercial Soaps Manufactured And Sold In Kenya

AbstractSoap is sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid produced by saponification reaction. Soap is used ona day to day basis by households. The physicochemical properties of soaps determine their qualityand hence determine their efficiency and their cleansing properties. It remains obscure the qualityof the soaps that are sold in the local markets in Kenya and thus the need to assess them. Eightcommercial washing soaps were analyzed for Matter insoluble in alcohol, moisture content, totalfat...

Assessing University Research Governance Practices And Structures In Developing Countries: The Nigerian Universities’ Experience

ABSTRACT While most universities in the developed world, by tradition, have research offices to handle research management, structures for the efficient coordination and strong governance of research are nascent within many Sub-Saharan African universities. In this paper we look at the organizational structures, policies and functions of research offices for supporting faculty research as well as their management operations in 5 selected Nigerian universities. The authors interviewed 20 ...

Antimicrobial Activity And Interaction Of Toddalia Asiaticacoumarins With Two Known Drugs

ABSTRACTPlant-derived compounds could exhibit a direct and/or an indirect antimicrobialactivity as antimicrobial resistance modifying compounds. Their effectiveness couldfurther be increased when combined with other bioactive compounds or antibiotics(synergy). A systematic search for plant-derived bioactive compounds, includingthose which can synergistically act with other bioactive compounds or antibiotics,as resistance modifying agents represents a potential approach to overcomingmicrobial ...


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