Biochemical role of antioxidants in the living system

Kelechi Okezie 44 PAGES (10886 WORDS) Seminar
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INTRODUCTION

Oxygen is an indispensable element for life. Oxidative property of oxygen plays a vital role in various biological phenomena; being essential for life, oxygen can also aggravate the damage within the cell by oxidative events. Oxygen is used by the cell to generate energy and free radicals are formed as a consequence of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production by the mitochondria. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the by-products resulting from the cellular redox process. These reactive species play a dual role in human as both toxic and beneficial compounds. The delicate balance between their two opposite effects is undoubtedly a key aspect of life. At low or moderate levels, reactive species exert beneficial effects on cellular redox signalling and immune function, but at high concentrations, they produce oxidative stress, a harmful process that can damage cell function and structures.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 What are Antioxidants? 1

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Sources Of Antioxidants 3

2.1.1 Antioxidants in Dietary Food 3

2.1.2 Dietary Antioxidants 3

2.1.3 Antioxidants in algae 4

2.1.4 Natural antioxidants 4

2.2 Classification Of Antioxidants 5

2.2.1 Natural Antioxidants 7

2.2.1.1 Enzymatic Antioxidants 7

2.2.1.2 Nonenzymatic Antioxidants 9

2.2.2 Synthetic Antioxidants 9

2.3 Reactive Oxygen Species 9

2.3.1 Biological Role of Reactive Oxygen Species/ Free Radicals 11

2.4 Concept Of Oxidative Stress And Molecular Damage 12

2.4.1 Lipids    13

2.4.2 Proteins    14

2.4.3 DNA 14

2.4.4 Carbohydrates 15

2.5 Mechanism Of Action Of Antioxidants 16

2.5.1 Antioxidants and natural defense from ROS induced damages  16

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Antioxidants Against Disease 17

3.1.1 Cardiovascular Disease  17

3.1.2 Cancer  18

3.1.3 Diabetes 19

3.1.4 Rheumatoid Arthritis 20

3.1.5 Neurodegenerative Diseases  21

3.1.6 Renal Disorders 23

3.1.7 Pulmonary disorders 24

3.1.8 Eye Disorders  25


CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Antioxidant Supplementation  27

4.2 Limitations of antioxidant supplementation  27

4.3 Conclusion  28

REFERENCES 29


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APA

Kelechi, O (2020). Biochemical role of antioxidants in the living system. Afribary.com: Retrieved November 28, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/biochemical-role-of-antioxidants-in-the-living-system

MLA 8th

Okezie, Kelechi. "Biochemical role of antioxidants in the living system" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 04 Apr. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/biochemical-role-of-antioxidants-in-the-living-system . Accessed 28 Nov. 2020.

MLA7

Okezie, Kelechi. "Biochemical role of antioxidants in the living system". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 04 Apr. 2020. Web. 28 Nov. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/biochemical-role-of-antioxidants-in-the-living-system >.

Chicago

Okezie, Kelechi. "Biochemical role of antioxidants in the living system" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed November 28, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/biochemical-role-of-antioxidants-in-the-living-system