Curriculum Shifts and the Teaching of History in Uganda A Case of Secondary Schools in Mbarara District, 2000-2015

ABSTRACT 

This study investigated curriculum shifts and the teaching of history in secondary schools in Uganda using Mbarara district as a case study. Despite the so many decades of western education in Uganda and the periodic shifts in Uganda’s secondary school curriculum [at least in theory after every five years], questions continue to persist about the relevance of the content taught. The increasing number of the jobless youths could be a reflection of the students not acquiring the skills, knowledge and competences needed for the world of work. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: to examine the aims and objectives of teaching history in secondary schools in Uganda; to determine the need for curriculum shift for history teaching in secondary schools in Uganda; and to find out the effects of curriculum shifts on the teaching of history in secondary schools in Uganda. The study adopted a qualitative approach using a cross-sectional survey design. Systematic and purposive sampling techniques were also used in this study. A sample of 125 respondents was selected for the study. The respondents included district education officers, head-teachers, deputy head-teachers and directors of studies. Others were the history teachers and history students. The data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and observations for primary data and the review of related literature for secondary data. Data was qualitatively analyzed, that is, by narrative analysis and content analysis. This involved a phenomenological approach of the deep understanding of the views and experiences of the participants, description, interpretation and narration of the emerging issues out of which authentic conclusions were made and quoting extensively in verbatim. The study established that the aims and objectives of teaching history in secondary schools in Uganda were multifaceted ranging from local to international issues of political, governance, economic, technological and socio-cultural values. The study revealed that there are several areas of concern which are social, cultural, technological, economic and political which justify the need for curriculum shift for history teaching in secondary schools in Uganda. The study revealed that there were both positive and negative effects of curriculum shifts on the teaching of history also termed as social, cultural, technological, economic and political. Curriculum shift was found to unlock the good ideas about how to improve teaching and learning in order to achieve the aims of education. The study concludes that the aims and objectives of teaching history in secondary schools in Uganda remain largely redundant or buried even when the papers of history taught explicitly show this. The study concludes that curriculum shift for history teaching in secondary schools in Uganda requires a multifaceted approach involving stake holders such as experts in curriculum planning, teachers, students, government, parents and donors to ease the implementation phase. The study further concludes that the effects of curriculum shift on the teaching of history in secondary schools in Uganda remain blurred and obscured since the content taught has differed little from the colonial days to the present. The study recommends that curriculum planners have to ensure that the pedagogies and methods employed by history teachers reflect the aims and objectives of teaching history. The study recommends that curriculum reforms should put all stake holders such as experts in curriculum planning, teachers, students, government, parents and donors on board in order to critically determine where the need lies. The study also recommends that regular forums should be established at the school, district, regional and national levels to assess how shifts in curriculum affect the teaching of history.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION........................................................................................................................ ii

APPROVAL..............................................................................................................................iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................... iv

DEDICATION ........................................................................................................................... v

TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... vi

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................... xi

LIST OF FIGURES.................................................................................................................. xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................. xiii

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................ xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Background of the study....................................................................................................... 1

1.2.1 Historical perspective ........................................................................................................ 1

1.2.2 Theoretical perspective...................................................................................................... 2

1.2.3 Conceptual perspective...................................................................................................... 4

1.2.4 Contextual perspective ...................................................................................................... 6

1.3 Statement of the problem ..................................................................................................... 7

1.4 Purpose of the study ............................................................................................................. 8

1.5 Specific objectives of the study............................................................................................ 8

1.6 Research questions............................................................................................................... 9

1.7 Scope of the study ................................................................................................................ 9

1.8 Significance of the study .................................................................................................... 10

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ..................................................................... 11

2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 11

2.2 Theoretical review.............................................................................................................. 11

2.3. Literature review................................................................................................................ 14

2.3.1 Aims and objectives of teaching history ......................................................................... 14

2.3.1.1 Re-connection to the past ............................................................................................. 14

2.3.1.2 Utilitarian and intellectual aims ................................................................................... 15

2.3.1.3 Power of imagination, reasoning and judgment........................................................... 15

2.3.1.4 Pedagogical and educational relevance ........................................................................ 16

2.3.1.5 Information attribute..................................................................................................... 16

2.3.1.6 Cultural identity............................................................................................................ 17

2.3.1.7 Civic education............................................................................................................. 17

2.3.1.8 Truth, justice and goodness.......................................................................................... 17

2.3.1.9 Nationalistic ideology................................................................................................... 18

2.3.1.10 Internationalist perspective......................................................................................... 18

2.4. Need for curriculum shift for history ................................................................................ 19

2.4.1 Out-dated curriculum ...................................................................................................... 19

2.4.2 Skill of inquiry and critical thinking ............................................................................... 20

2.4.3 Scientific thinking, interpretation and rationality............................................................ 20

2.4.4 Competition from other subjects..................................................................................... 22

2.4.5 Job prospects of history................................................................................................... 22

2.4.6 Transition to knowledge and technology driven world................................................... 23

2.4.7 Broadening concept of development............................................................................... 23

2.4.8 Information and technology revolution........................................................................... 24

2.4.9 New demands of work and workplaces........................................................................... 26

2.4.10 New working ways........................................................................................................ 26

2.4.11 New tools for working................................................................................................... 27

2.4.12 Social fracture and political instability.......................................................................... 27

2.5 Effects of curriculum shift on history teaching .................................................................. 28

2.5.1 Expansion of the publishing industry and new authors................................................... 28

2.5.2 Acceptance versus rejection of curriculum change ......................................................... 28

2.5.3 New pedagogies and methodologies............................................................................... 29

2.5.4 Emotions and despair ...................................................................................................... 29

2.5.5 Capacity building ............................................................................................................ 30

2.5.6 Attainment of the aims of education ............................................................................... 30

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY............................................................................ 32

3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 32

3.2 Research Design ................................................................................................................. 32

3.3. Target Population .............................................................................................................. 33

3.4 Sample framework and sample size ................................................................................... 33

3.5 Data collection methods..................................................................................................... 36

3.5.1 Interviews........................................................................................................................ 36

3.5.2 Focus group discussions (FGDs)..................................................................................... 37

3.5.3 Observation ..................................................................................................................... 37

3.6 Validity............................................................................................................................... 38

3.7 Reliability ........................................................................................................................... 38

3.8 Data gathering procedures.................................................................................................. 39

3.9 Data analysis....................................................................................................................... 39

3.10 Ethical Considerations...................................................................................................... 40

3.11 Limitations of the Study................................................................................................... 41

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCISSION ............................................. 42

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 42

4.2 Aims and objectives of teaching history in secondary schools in Uganda ........................ 42

4.2.1 Understanding our past.................................................................................................... 43

4.2.2 Intellectual ambitions...................................................................................................... 44

4.2.3 Human progress and development .................................................................................. 44

4.2.4 Source of information...................................................................................................... 45

4.2.5 Cultural heritage .............................................................................................................. 46

4.2.6 Civic education and nationalism ..................................................................................... 47

4.2.7 Internationalist perspective and world opinion ............................................................... 48

4.2.8 Truth, justice and fairness ............................................................................................... 49

4.3 Need for curriculum shift for history teaching in secondary schools in Uganda ............... 50

4.3.1 Irrelevant and unsuitable curriculum............................................................................... 50

4.3.2 Power of imagination and creative thinking.................................................................... 52

4.3.4 Scientific thinking and rationality ................................................................................... 52

4.3.5 Competing subjects and changing expectations of work ................................................ 53

4.3.6 Growing advances in knowledge and technology........................................................... 54

4.3.7 Information and technological bang................................................................................ 56

4.3.8 Changing face of social and political issues.................................................................... 57

4.4 Effects of curriculum shift on the teaching of history in secondary schools in Uganda .... 58

4.4.1 Accomplishment of the aims and objectives of education .............................................. 58

4.4.2 New publishers and authors ............................................................................................ 59

4.4.3 Mixed reactions on curriculum change ........................................................................... 59

4.4.4 New ways of teaching and learning ................................................................................ 60

4.4.5 Personal growth of teachers and extension of knowledge .............................................. 62

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....... 63

5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 63

5.2 Summary ............................................................................................................................ 63

5.2.1 Aims and objectives of teaching history ......................................................................... 64

5.2.2 Need for curriculum shift for history teaching................................................................ 64

5.2.3 Effects of curriculum shift on the teaching of history..................................................... 65

5.3 Conclusions........................................................................................................................ 66

5.4 Recommendations.............................................................................................................. 67

5.5 Recommended areas for further research........................................................................... 68

REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 69

APPENDIX A: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR KEY INFORMANTS AND FOCUS GROUPS ........................................................... 75

APPENDIX B: OBSERVATION CHECKLIST ..................................................................... 76

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APA

Consults, E. (2022). Curriculum Shifts and the Teaching of History in Uganda A Case of Secondary Schools in Mbarara District, 2000-2015. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/curriculum-shifts-and-the-teaching-of-history-in-uganda-a-case-of-secondary-schools-in-mbarara-district-2000-2015

MLA 8th

Consults, Education "Curriculum Shifts and the Teaching of History in Uganda A Case of Secondary Schools in Mbarara District, 2000-2015" Afribary. Afribary, 30 Sep. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/curriculum-shifts-and-the-teaching-of-history-in-uganda-a-case-of-secondary-schools-in-mbarara-district-2000-2015. Accessed 22 May. 2024.

MLA7

Consults, Education . "Curriculum Shifts and the Teaching of History in Uganda A Case of Secondary Schools in Mbarara District, 2000-2015". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Sep. 2022. Web. 22 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/curriculum-shifts-and-the-teaching-of-history-in-uganda-a-case-of-secondary-schools-in-mbarara-district-2000-2015 >.

Chicago

Consults, Education . "Curriculum Shifts and the Teaching of History in Uganda A Case of Secondary Schools in Mbarara District, 2000-2015" Afribary (2022). Accessed May 22, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/curriculum-shifts-and-the-teaching-of-history-in-uganda-a-case-of-secondary-schools-in-mbarara-district-2000-2015

Document Details
Field: History Type: Dissertation 90 PAGES (21632 WORDS) (pdf)