EFFECTS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE ON WATER QUALITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER, IN OWERRI

The MasterMind Project Amako Juliana 75 PAGES (9809 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

This study examines the effects of urban solid waste on Otamiri River water quality in Owerri. The major objective was to determine the seasonal variations of the physical, chemical and bacteriological properties of Otamiri River water. Standard procedure was used to determine the following selected parameters; Total hardness, pH, Electrical conductivity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), Total coliform count and some heavy metals such as Iron, Manganese. Results obtained show that Turbidity ranges from (2.8 - 32.1 NTU), pH ranges from (6.4 – 6.9 mg/l), Total solids (10.3 - 855.8 mg/l), Total hardness (18.1 - 168.2), Alkalinity varied from (4.1 - 18.5 mg/l), Phosphate varied from (0.2 – 10.4 mg/l) others include; Chloride ranges from (12.1-18.49 mg/l), Nitrate (0.2 - 8.2 mg/l), Sulphate (27.4 - 103.8mg/l), Manganese (0.02 - 0.21 mg/l), Total coliform (8.4-140.1 mg/l), Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand were (5.6-48.3mg/l) and (3.8 – 37.9mg/l) respectively. Point B that receives major waste dump had higher concentrations of pollutants than other points.

It was further observed that some of the parameters exceeded the recommended FEPA standard such as BOD5, Iron, Total coliform count. These are discussed and appropriate recommendations were made.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  1. 1.0  Introduction 1

  2. 1.1  Background of the study 1

  3. 1.2  Statement of problem 2

  4. 1.3  Aim and objectives of the study 3

  5. 1.4  Justification of the study 3

1.4 Scope of the study 4

CHAPTER TWO

  1. 2.0  Literature Review 5

  2. 2.1  Definitions of urban solid waste 5

  3. 2.2  Composition of municipal solid waste 5-6

2.3 Types of urban solid waste 7

  1. 2.3.1  Urban Agricultural wastes 7

  2. 2.3.2  Construction/Demolition wastes 7

  3. 2.3.3  Hospital wastes 8

  4. 2.3.4  Industrial wastes 8

  5. 2.3.5  Institutional wastes 9

  6. 2.3.6  Special wastes 10

  7. 2.3.7  Hazardous wastes 10

  8. 2.3.8  Effects of urban solid waste on water quality 11-12

2.4 Concept of water quality 13

2.4.1 Water quality parameter issues related to

surface water bodies 14-15

2.5 Definitions of water pollution 16

  1. 2.5.1  Sources of water pollution 17

  2. 2.5.2  Effects of water pollution 18

  1. 2.6  Water quality management 19

  2. 2.7  FEPA (1992) Water quality standards 20-24

CHAPTER THREE

  1. 3.0  Research Methodology 25

  2. 3.1  Description of Study Area 25

    1. 3.1.1  Site Location 25

    2. 3.1.2  Vegetation 28

    3. 3.1.3  Climate 28

    4. 3.1.4  Geology 28

    5. 3.1.5  Soil 29

    6. 3.1.6  Land Use 29

    1. 3.2  Research Design 29

    2. 3.3  Data Collection 30

    1. 3.3.1  Sampling 30

    2. 3.3.2  Sampling Location 30

    3. 3.3.3  Sampling Methods 30

    4. 3.3.4  Sample Preservation 31

    5. 3.3.5  Observation 31

3.4 Laboratory Analysis 31

  1. 3.4.1  pH 31

  2. 3.4.2  Temperature 32

  1. 3.4.3  Turbidity 32

  2. 3.4.4  Colour 32

  3. 3.4.5  Hardness 32

  4. 3.4.6  Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) 33

  5. 3.4.7  Total Suspended Solids (TSS) 33

  6. 3.4.8  Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) 34

  7. 3.4.9  Determination of Chemical Oxygen

    Demand (COD) Using Reactor

    Digestion Method 34

  8. 3.4.10  Heavy Metals 35

  9. 3.4.11  Alkalinity 36

  10. 3.4.12  Nitrate 36

  11. 3.4.13  Sulphate 36

  12. 3.4.14  Chloride 37

  13. 3.4.15  Total coliform count 38

3.5 Technique for data analysis 38


CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results and Discussion 39 4.1 Results 39

  1. 4.2  Discussion 49

  2. 4.3  pH 49

  3. 4.4  Total Hardness (mg/l) 49

  4. 4.5  Turbidity (mg/l) 50

  5. 4.6  Chloride (mg/l) 50

  6. 4.7  Sulphate (mg/l) 50

  7. 4.8  Electrical Conductivity (μS) 50

  8. 4.9  Biological oxygen demand (mg/l) 50

  9. 4.10  Total coliform count (mpn/100ml) 51

  10. 4.11  Observations made at the Sampling Locations 51

CHAPTER FIVE

  1. 5.0  Summary of Research Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 52

  2. 5.1  Summary of Research Finding 52

  3. 5.2  Conclusion 53

  4. 5.3  Recommendations 53

REFERENCES 55-60 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). EFFECTS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE ON WATER QUALITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER, IN OWERRI. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 25, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-urban-solid-waste-on-water-quality-of-otamiri-river-in-owerri

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "EFFECTS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE ON WATER QUALITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER, IN OWERRI" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-urban-solid-waste-on-water-quality-of-otamiri-river-in-owerri . Accessed 25 Feb. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "EFFECTS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE ON WATER QUALITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER, IN OWERRI". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 25 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-urban-solid-waste-on-water-quality-of-otamiri-river-in-owerri >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "EFFECTS OF URBAN SOLID WASTE ON WATER QUALITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER, IN OWERRI" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed February 25, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/effects-of-urban-solid-waste-on-water-quality-of-otamiri-river-in-owerri