Research Papers/Topics in Crop Production And Science

Occurrence, Distribution And Molecular Diversity Of Groundnut Rosette Assistor Virus Causing Groundnut Rosette Disease In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTGroundnut (Arachis hypogaea Linn) is an important legume in western Kenya, but yields arelow and declining. Pests and diseases are ranked high among the yield reducing factors.Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the main disease and can cause up to 100% yield loss.Rosette is transmitted mainly by the groundnut aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch and to a lesserextent by Aphis gosypii Glover and Myzus persicae Sulzer. Rosette is caused by twosynergistic viruses; groundnut rosette assistor viru...

Efficacy Of Leaf Extracts Of Artemisia Annua And Thevetia Peruviana Against Aphis Fabae And Non-Target Organisms On Solanum Scabrum

ABSTRACTAfrican nightshade (Solanum scabrum Miller) is a vegetable, widely distributedthroughout the tropics including East Africa. It is an important vegetable in Kenya butconsumer demands have not been met due to low yields and partly due to attack byAphis fabae Scopoli. The aphids cause serious damage through sucking plant cell sapfrom phloem leaving the plant weakened, dehydrated, stunted in growth and eventuallyunder heavy infestation the leaves curl making the vegetables unattractive to...

Distributionand Characterization Of Groundnut Rosette Associated Virusesin Western Kenya

ABSTRACTGroundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important edible oilseed legumein Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Smallholder farmers, who account for 75% ofproducers, depend on it for food and income. However the yields are far below theworld averages. Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is a major constraint of groundnutsin Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) causing up to 100% yield losses. The disease is causedby two synergistic viruses; groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV, genus Luteovirus)and ...

Challenges Facing Chicken Production In Katulani District, Kitui County

ABSTRACTThe poultry industry in Kenya is a key contributor to the local economy as well as food security and income with over 90% of households owning a flock of chicken (Kingori et al., 2010). The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by rural and peri urban chicken farmers in Katulani District, Kitui County. The study focussed on understanding the challenges affecting chicken farming, factors affecting technology adoption, access to institutional support servi...

Belowground Influence Of Farmer-Produced Composts On Soil Biota, Foliar Pests And Yields Of Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTThe production of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris in Kenya has been reducing dueto declining soil fertility. The use of synthetic fertilizers has been linked to soilacidification, which constrains plant growth and interferes with beneficialrhizosphere biota. The application of composts is being encouraged, and farmers inWestern Kenya are being trained on composting of locally available organicmaterials. However, there is need to establish the performance of such farmerproducedcomposts ...

Distribution And Characterization Of Groundnut Rosette Associated Viruses In Western Kenya

ABSTRACTGroundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an economically important edible oilseed legumein Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Smallholder farmers, who account for 75% ofproducers, depend on it for food and income. However the yields are far below theworld averages. Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is a major constraint of groundnutsin Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) causing up to 100% yield losses. The disease is causedby two synergistic viruses; groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV, genus Luteovirus)and ...

Crop Detection and Control Advisory System

ABSTRACT This research is aimed at developing a Crop Disease Detection and Control Advisory System which assists the farming community. The idea of developing the system came as a way of mitigating the problems affecting the organization that include poor and slow service delivery in FCC shops when assisting farmers or giving advice to farmers. Farmers from remote areas have to travel long distances to get assistance and be advised on how they can cure certain diseases affecting their p...

Interaction Of Meloidogyne Incognita With Botryodiplodia Theobromae On Manihot Esculenta (Cassava) And Its Biocontrol

ABSTRACT The Root-Knot Nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita and fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae, are important pests that cause yield losses in cassava and other crops. Chemicals have been used to manage these pests but with undesirable side effects. Information on pathogenicity of M. incognita, its interaction with B. theobromae and its biocontrol in Nigeria is very little. Therefore, pathogenicity of M. incognita on cassava, its interaction with B. theobromae and management with bio...

POST-CERTIFICATION SURVEILLANCE OF MARKETED VEGETABLE SEEDS IN THE GREATER ACCRA REGION FOR SEED QUALITY MAINTENANCE

ABSTRACTQuality seeds constitute one of the basic and the most important inputs in any vegetable crop production endeavour. A post-certification surveillance was undertaken to evaluate the quality of certified imported and local vegetable seeds at commercial retailers’ end in the distribution and marketing chains in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Structured questionnaires were administered to 18 commercial vegetable seed retailers who constituted the main vegetable seed delivery channel...

Biology and Ecology of the Leafroller (Sylepta derogata Fabricius) on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

ABSTRACT Sylepta derogata, Fabricius a major insect pest, defoliates and causes enormous yield loss in Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench. Control of the pest with chemicals and other methods have not been successful due to scanty information on the biology and ecology of the pest. This study was conducted to assess the biology and ecology of Sylepta derogata on Abelmoschus esculentus. Abelmoschus esculentus was planted in early (March-June, 2009), mid (July-September, 2009) and late (N...

EVALUATION AND INHERITANCE OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE RESISTANCE TO VIRAL DISEASES OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

ABSTRACT Viral diseases usually occur as multiple infections and significantly reduce yield in cowpea. Planting resistant cowpea varieties is economical and effective in controlling viral diseases. However, information on mode of inheritance of virus resistance required for cowpea breeding programmes is limited. Thus, single and multiple resistance and inheritance patterns of resistance to viral diseases were investigated in some selected cowpea breeding lines. Nine cowpea genotypes co...

Genetic Analysis of Mutants From Irradiated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp.) Seeds and Pollen

ABSTRACT Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, is an important human and livestock protein source in Nigeria, but its production is constrained by ravages of pests and climate change. Conventional breeding efforts used to fortify it against these constraints had resulted into its narrow genetic base. In order to overcome this challenge, other mutation procedures such as physical and chemical mutagens could be used. Nevertheless, information on gamma and ultra-violet (UV) irradiated cowpea seeds an...

Response of Soyabean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) to Integrated Weed Management in a Forest-Savannah Transition Ecosystem in Oyo State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Weed infestation of soyabean field causes 65% yield reduction in the forestsavanna transition ecosystem of Nigeria. Single weed control method is often less effective. However, Integrated Weed Management (IWM), will ensure more effective and environment friendly control. There is little information on IWM application on soyabean field. This study was therefore aimed at investigating response of soyabean to IWM. Field study was carried out in the 2008 and 2009 planting seasons...

EFFICACY OF SELECTED BOTANICALS AND MICROBIAL AGENTS AS ECO-FRIENDLY PROTECTANTS AGAINST Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) NIRENBERG EAR-ROT DISEASE OF MAIZE, Zea mays L.

ABSTRACT Fusarium verticillioides is a major fungal pathogen of maize causing rots in seed, root, stalk and ear; seedling blight and fumonisin mycotoxin contamination of grains. Use of chemicals is being discouraged due to its human and environmental health hazards. Information on eco-friendly control method against the pathogen is scanty. Therefore, the efficacies of selected botanicals and microbial agents as eco-friendly control against F. verticillioides were determined. Six Qualit...

THE INFLUENCE OF RICE HUSK BIOCHAR AND NITROGEN SOURCES ON THE GROWTH OF LOWLAND RICE ON AN EUTRIC GLEYSOL FROM WALEWALE

ABSTRACT Soil nutrient depletion in lowland rice growing ecologies in Northern Ghana is one of the major causes of low rice yields. Most nutrients applied to enhance the fertility of soil are lost through leaching due to the low CEC of the soils caused mainly by low organic matter and low colloidal clay content of the soils. The application of biochar has been found to improve soil fertility through its enhanced nutrient retention leading to increased nutrient uptake ...


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